/visualisations/censusareachanges/E09000030/

The population passed 310,000

Between the last two censuses (held in 2011 and 2021), the population of Tower Hamlets increased by 22.1%, from just under 254,100 in 2011 to around 310,300 in 2021.

This means Tower Hamlets' population saw the largest percentage increase in England. The population of London increased by 7.7%, while the population of England rose by 6.6%.

In 2021, Tower Hamlets was home to around 112.1 people per football pitch-sized piece of land, compared with 91.8 in 2011. This area was the most densely populated local authority area across England.

This article generally uses percentages to enable comparisons over time and between areas. The percentage point change is also used to show the difference between the 2011 and 2021 percentages.

Population growth was higher in Tower Hamlets than across London

Percentage population change, Tower Hamlets and surrounding areas, 2011 Census to Census 2021
England ▲6.6% London ▲7.7% Tower Hamlets ▲22.1%
-2-0.50.5+2+8+16%

Source: Office for National Statistics – 2011 Census and Census 2021

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Median age in Tower Hamlets

Between the last two censuses, the average (median) age of Tower Hamlets increased by one year, from 29 to 30 years of age.

This area had the lowest average (median) age of any local authority area in England. Across the country, the overall average (median) age was 40 years of age in 2021.

The median age is the age of the person in the middle of the group, meaning that one half of the group is younger than that person and the other half is older.

The number of people aged 35 to 49 years rose by just under 21,000 (an increase of 42.8%), while the number of residents between 75 and 84 years fell by just under 600 (10.5% decrease).

The share of residents aged between 35 and 49 years increased by 3.3 percentage points between 2011 and 2021

Percentage of usual residents by age group,
0%
2011
2021


comparisons
Classification 2011_Tower Hamlets_% 2021_Tower Hamlets_% 2011_London_% 2021_London_% 2011_England_%2021_England_% Percentage in Tower Hamlets Percentage in undefined
85 years and over 0.7 0.7 1.5 1.6 2.2 2.4 0.7%
0.7%
75 to 84 years 2.2 1.6 3.8 3.8 5.5 6.1 2.2%
1.6%
65 to 74 years 3.2 3.3 5.8 6.5 8.6 9.8 3.2%
3.3%
50 to 64 years 9.2 10.7 14.4 16.9 18.1 19.4 9.2%
10.7%
35 to 49 years 19.3 22.5 22.4 22.7 21.3 19.4 19.3%
22.5%
25 to 34 years 28.8 27.5 19.9 18.1 13.5 13.6 28.8%
27.5%
20 to 24 years 12.1 10.3 7.7 6.7 6.8 6.0 12.1%
10.3%
16 to 19 years 4.7 4.9 4.6 4.4 5.1 4.6 4.7%
4.9%
10 to 15 years 6.2 6.7 6.7 7.2 7.0 7.2 6.2%
6.7%
5 to 9 years 6.1 5.7 5.9 6.0 5.6 5.9 6.1%
5.7%
4 years and under 7.4 6.2 7.2 6.0 6.3 5.4 7.4%
6.2%

Source: Office for National Statistics – 2011 Census and Census 2021

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Family in Tower Hamlets

The percentage of households including a couple but no children increased in Tower Hamlets, but fell across England.

In Tower Hamlets, the percentage of households including a couple without children rose from 14.7% in 2011 to 17.4% in 2021, while across England it fell from 17.6% to 16.8%. During the same period, the regional percentage increased from 13.8% to 14.2%.

The percentage of households including a couple with dependent children in Tower Hamlets increased from 14.8% to 16.4%, while the percentage of households including a couple with only non-dependent children increased from 2.3% to 2.7%.

The percentage of households including a couple without children in Tower Hamlets increased by 2.7 percentage points

Percentage of households by household composition,
0%
2011
2021


comparisons
Classification 2011_Tower Hamlets_% 2021_Tower Hamlets_% 2011_London_% 2021_London_% 2011_England_%2021_England_% Percentage in Tower Hamlets Percentage in undefined
One-person household: Aged 66 years and over (Aged 65 years and over in 2011) 6.0 4.8 9.6 9.1 12.4 12.8 6.0%
4.8%
One-person household: Other 28.6 27.2 22.0 20.1 17.9 17.3 28.6%
27.2%
Single-family household: Cohabiting-couple family: No children 14.7 17.4 13.8 14.2 17.6 16.8 14.7%
17.4%
Single-family household: Cohabiting-couple family: With dependent children 14.8 16.4 17.8 18.8 19.3 18.9 14.8%
16.4%
Single-family household: Cohabiting-couple family: All children non-dependent 2.3 2.7 5.1 5.8 6.1 6.3 2.3%
2.7%
Single-family household: Lone-parent household 10.6 10.7 12.7 13.3 10.6 11.1 10.6%
10.7%
Other household types 22.9 20.8 19.1 18.7 16.1 16.9 22.9%
20.8%

Source: Office for National Statistics – 2011 Census and Census 2021

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Employment in Tower Hamlets

The percentage of people aged 16 years and over (excluding full-time students) who were employed increased here, but fell across England.

In Tower Hamlets, the percentage who were employed rose from 55.7% in 2011 to 58.7% in 2021, while across England it fell from 56.5% to 55.7%. During the same period, the regional percentage increased from 58.6% to 59.4%.

The percentage of people aged 16 years and over who were unemployed (excluding full-time students) in Tower Hamlets fell from 6.5% to 4.7%, while the percentage of people aged 16 years and over who were retired (economically inactive) decreased from 7.6% to 5.8%.

Census 2021 took place during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, a period of rapid and unparalleled change; the national lockdown, associated guidance and furlough measures will have affected the labour market and our ability to measure it.

The percentage of people aged 16 years and over who were employed (excluding full-time students) in Tower Hamlets increased by 3.1 percentage points

Percentage of usual residents aged 16 years and over by economic activity status,
0%
2011
2021


comparisons
Classification 2011_Tower Hamlets_% 2021_Tower Hamlets_% 2011_London_% 2021_London_% 2011_England_%2021_England_% Percentage in Tower Hamlets Percentage in undefined
Economically active (excluding full-time students): In employment 55.7 58.7 58.6 59.4 56.5 55.7 55.7%
58.7%
Economically active (excluding full-time students): Unemployed 6.5 4.7 4.9 4.1 4.0 2.9 6.5%
4.7%
Economically active and a full-time student: In employment 3.8 2.7 2.8 2.0 2.4 1.7 3.8%
2.7%
Economically active and a full-time student: Unemployed 1.5 1.3 1.0 0.7 0.7 0.6 1.5%
1.3%
Economically inactive: Retired 7.6 5.8 13.7 12.9 21.2 21.5 7.6%
5.8%
Economically inactive: Student 9.5 9.6 7.3 7.2 5.3 5.6 9.5%
9.6%
Economically inactive: Looking after home or family 6.8 8.4 4.9 6.0 4.0 4.8 6.8%
8.4%
Economically inactive: Long-term sick or disabled 4.5 4.0 3.6 3.6 3.8 4.1 4.5%
4.0%
Economically inactive: Other 4.1 4.7 3.2 4.1 2.2 3.1 4.1%
4.7%

Source: Office for National Statistics – 2011 Census and Census 2021

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Change in work hours

The decrease in the percentage of people aged 16 years and over and in employment who said they usually worked over 49 hours per week was greater in Tower Hamlets (4.0 percentage points) than in nearby Hackney (1.5 percentage points).

In Tower Hamlets, the percentage of long hours workers decreased from 19.4% in 2011 to 15.4% in 2021. During the same period, the percentage in nearby Hackney decreased from 15.2% to 13.7%.

The percentage of adults who worked 15 hours or less in Tower Hamlets increased from 8.2% to 10.0%, while the percentage of adults in employment who worked 31 to 48 hours increased from 55.9% to 58.4%.

Working hours may have been affected by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.

The percentage of adults in employment who worked 49 hours or more in Tower Hamlets decreased by 4.0 percentage points

Percentage of usual residents aged 16 years and over and in employment by the number of hours worked per week,
0%
2011
2021


comparisons
Classification 2011_Tower Hamlets_% 2021_Tower Hamlets_% 2011_London_% 2021_London_% 2011_England_%2021_England_% Percentage in Tower Hamlets Percentage in undefined
15 hours or less worked 8.2 10.0 8.8 10.7 9.7 10.3 8.2%
10.0%
16 to 30 hours worked 16.6 16.2 17.0 17.4 19.5 19.5 16.6%
16.2%
31 to 48 hours worked 55.9 58.4 58.4 58.6 57.5 59.1 55.9%
58.4%
49 or more hours worked 19.4 15.4 15.9 13.3 13.3 11.1 19.4%
15.4%

Source: Office for National Statistics – 2011 Census and Census 2021

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Tower Hamlets residents' country of birth

In the latest census, around 160,000 Tower Hamlets residents said they were born in England. This represented 51.5% of the local population. The figure has risen from around 138,700 in 2011, which at the time represented 54.6% of Tower Hamlets' population.

Bangladesh was the next most represented, with just under 43,600 Tower Hamlets residents reporting this country of birth (14.0%). This figure was up from around 38,900 in 2011, which at the time represented 15.3% of the population of Tower Hamlets.

The number of Tower Hamlets residents born in Italy rose from just over 3,000 in 2011 (1.2% of the local population) to just under 10,600 in 2021 (3.4%).

In 2021, 51.5% of Tower Hamlets residents reported their country of birth as England

Percentage of usual residents by country of birth,
0%
2011
2021


comparisons
Classification 2011_Tower Hamlets_% 2021_Tower Hamlets_% 2011_London_% 2021_London_% 2011_England_%2021_England_% Percentage in Tower Hamlets Percentage in undefined
England 54.6 51.5 61.1 57.7 83.5 80.3 54.6%
51.5%
Bangladesh 15.3 14.0 1.3 1.6 0.4 0.5 15.3%
14.0%
Italy 1.2 3.4 0.8 1.4 0.2 0.5 1.2%
3.4%
India 1.5 2.0 3.2 3.7 1.3 1.6 1.5%
2.0%
Europe (other than the UK, Turkey and EU countries) 1.2 1.7 1.2 1.9 0.4 0.6 1.2%
1.7%

Source: Office for National Statistics – 2011 Census and Census 2021
Notes:
  1. This chart shows the five most common countries of birth in Tower Hamlets in 2021
  2. Please see the data dictionary for further detail on country of birth groupings

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Disability in Tower Hamlets

Tower Hamlets saw England's joint second-largest percentage-point fall (alongside Hackney) in the proportion of residents who were identified as being disabled and limited a lot (from 14.0% in 2011 to 10.4% in 2021). These are age-standardised proportions.

Age-standardised proportions are used throughout this section. They enable comparisons between populations over time and across geographies, as they account for differences in the population size and age structure.

England's largest decrease in the proportion of residents who were identified as being disabled and limited a lot occurred in Newham (from 13.5% to 9.1%).

Every local authority area across London saw a fall in the proportion of residents who were identified as being disabled and limited a lot, as the regional proportion fell from 9.4% to 7.1%.

Census 2021 was undertaken during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. This may have influenced how people perceived their health status and activity limitations, and therefore may have affected how people chose to respond.

Caution should be taken when making comparisons between 2011 and 2021 because of changes in question wording and response options.

The percentage of people who were identified as being disabled and limited a lot in Tower Hamlets decreased by 3.6 percentage points

Age-standardised proportion of usual residents by long-term health condition or illness,
0%
2011
2021


comparisons
Classification 2011_Tower Hamlets_% 2021_Tower Hamlets_% 2011_London_% 2021_London_% 2011_England_%2021_England_% Percentage in Tower Hamlets Percentage in undefined
Disabled and limited a lot 14.0 10.4 9.4 7.1 9.1 7.5 14.0%
10.4%
Disabled and limited a little 11.8 9.7 9.8 8.5 10.2 10.2 11.8%
9.7%
Not disabled 74.2 79.9 80.8 84.3 80.7 82.3 74.2%
79.9%

Source: Office for National Statistics – 2011 Census and Census 2021

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Health in Tower Hamlets

In 2021, 42.5% of Tower Hamlets residents described their health as "very good", increasing from 38.7% in 2011. Those describing their health as "good" rose from 31.7% to 32.0%. These are age-standardised proportions.

Age-standardised proportions are used throughout this section. They enable comparisons between populations over time and across geographies, as they account for differences in the population size and age structure.

The proportion of Tower Hamlets residents describing their health as "very bad" decreased from 3.3% to 2.5%, while those describing their health as "bad" fell from 8.7% to 7.0%.

These data reflect people’s own opinions in describing their overall health on a five point scale, from very good to very bad.

Census 2021 was conducted during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. This may have influenced how people perceived and rated their health, and therefore may have affected how people chose to respond.

The percentage of people in very bad health in Tower Hamlets decreased by 0.8 percentage points

Age-standardised proportion of usual residents by self-reported health,
0%
2011
2021


comparisons
Classification 2011_Tower Hamlets_% 2021_Tower Hamlets_% 2011_London_% 2021_London_% 2011_England_%2021_England_% Percentage in Tower Hamlets Percentage in undefined
Very good health 38.7 42.5 44.5 49.0 45.0 47.5 38.7%
42.5%
Good health 31.7 32.0 34.3 32.9 34.8 34.2 31.7%
32.0%
Fair health 17.6 15.9 14.6 12.6 14.2 13.0 17.6%
15.9%
Bad health 8.7 7.0 5.1 4.1 4.6 4.1 8.7%
7.0%
Very bad health 3.3 2.5 1.7 1.3 1.4 1.2 3.3%
2.5%

Source: Office for National Statistics – 2011 Census and Census 2021

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Change in unpaid care provision

Tower Hamlets saw England's joint largest percentage-point fall (alongside Barking and Dagenham) in the proportion of people (aged five years and over) providing 50 hours, or more, of weekly unpaid care (from 3.1% in 2011 to 2.5% in 2021). These are age-standardised proportions.

Age-standardised proportions are used throughout this section. They enable comparisons between populations over time and across geographies, as they account for differences in the population size and age structure.

Barrow-in-Furness (from 3.6% to 3.1%) and Newham (from 3.1% to 2.6%) saw the country's next largest decreases in the proportion of people (aged five years and over) providing 50 hours, or more, of weekly unpaid care.

Across London, the proportion of people (aged five years and over) providing 50 hours, or more, of weekly unpaid care fell from 2.4% to 2.3%, while the proportion in nearby Hackney fell from 2.5% to 2.3%.

Census 2021 was undertaken during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. This may have influenced how people perceived and managed their provision of unpaid care, and therefore may have affected how people chose to respond.

Caution should be taken when making comparisons between 2011 and 2021 because of changes in question wording and response options.

The percentage of those providing 50 hours, or more, of weekly unpaid care in Tower Hamlets decreased by 0.6 percentage points

Age-standardised proportion of usual residents (aged five years and over) by hours per week of unpaid care provision,
0%
2011
2021


comparisons
Classification 2011_Tower Hamlets_% 2021_Tower Hamlets_% 2011_London_% 2021_London_% 2011_England_%2021_England_% Percentage in Tower Hamlets Percentage in undefined
Does not provide weekly unpaid care 89.9 92.4 89.7 92.2 88.7 91.1 89.9%
92.4%
Up to 19 hours of unpaid care 5.2 3.1 6.4 3.8 7.2 4.4 5.2%
3.1%
20 to 49 hours of unpaid care 1.8 2.0 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.8 1.8%
2.0%
50 or more hours of unpaid care 3.1 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.7 2.7 3.1%
2.5%

Source: Office for National Statistics – 2011 Census and Census 2021

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Change in housing in Tower Hamlets

Tower Hamlets saw England's third-largest percentage-point fall in the proportion of households in the social rented sector (from 39.6% in 2011 to 35.9% in 2021).

England's largest decreases in the percentage of households in the social rented sector occurred in Nottingham (from 29.7% to 25.5%) followed by Southwark (from 43.7% to 39.7%).

Despite the decrease, Tower Hamlets was in the highest 2% of English local authority areas for the share of households in the social rented sector in 2021.

The rate of social renting in Tower Hamlets decreased by 3.7 percentage points

Percentage of households by housing tenure,
0%
2011
2021


comparisons
Classification 2011_Tower Hamlets_% 2021_Tower Hamlets_% 2011_London_% 2021_London_% 2011_England_%2021_England_% Percentage in Tower Hamlets Percentage in undefined
Owns outright or with a mortgage or loan 24.2 23.1 48.3 45.2 63.3 61.3 24.2%
23.1%
Shared ownership 2.4 2.6 1.3 1.5 0.8 1.0 2.4%
2.6%
Social rented 39.6 35.9 24.1 23.1 17.7 17.1 39.6%
35.9%
Private rented 32.6 38.2 25.1 30.0 16.8 20.5 32.6%
38.2%
Lives rent free 1.2 0.2 1.3 0.2 1.3 0.1 1.2%
0.2%

Source: Office for National Statistics – 2011 Census and Census 2021

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Changing relationships in Tower Hamlets

Tower Hamlets saw London's joint second-largest percentage-point fall (alongside Barking and Dagenham and Sutton) in the proportion of people aged 16 years and over who had divorced or dissolved a civil partnership (from 5.6% in 2011 to 5.0% in 2021).

Across the region, only City of London saw a greater fall in the percentage of people aged 16 years and over who had divorced or dissolved a civil partnership (from 7.8% to 7.0%).

Because of its small size, comparisons to City of London should be made with caution.

These figures include same-sex marriages and opposite-sex civil partnerships in 2021, neither of which were legally recognised in England and Wales in 2011. Same-sex marriages have been legally recognised in England and Wales since 2014 and opposite-sex civil partnerships have been recognised since 2019.

The percentage of adults who had divorced or dissolved a civil partnership in Tower Hamlets decreased by 0.6 percentage points

Percentage of usual residents aged 16 years and over by legal partnership status,
0%
2011
2021


comparisons
Classification 2011_Tower Hamlets_% 2021_Tower Hamlets_% 2011_London_% 2021_London_% 2011_England_%2021_England_% Percentage in Tower Hamlets Percentage in undefined
Never married and never registered a civil partnership 55.3 58.3 44.1 46.2 34.6 37.9 55.3%
58.3%
Married or in a registered civil partnership 32.2 32.0 40.2 40.0 46.8 44.7 32.2%
32.0%
Separated, but still legally married or still legally in a civil partnership 3.2 2.0 3.2 2.3 2.7 2.2 3.2%
2.0%
Divorced or civil partnership dissolved 5.6 5.0 7.4 7.3 9.0 9.1 5.6%
5.0%
Widowed or surviving civil partnership partner 3.7 2.7 5.0 4.2 6.9 6.1 3.7%
2.7%

Source: Office for National Statistics – 2011 Census and Census 2021

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Religion in Tower Hamlets

In 2021, 26.6% of Tower Hamlets residents reported having "No religion", up from 21.0% in 2011. The rise of 5.6 percentage points was the largest increase of all broad religious groups in Tower Hamlets. Because the census question about religious affiliation is voluntary and has varying response rates, caution is needed when comparing figures between different areas or between censuses.

Across London, the percentage of residents who described themselves as having "No religion" increased from 21.0% to 27.1%, while across England the percentage increased from 24.8% to 36.7%.

In 2021, 39.9% of people in Tower Hamlets described themselves as Muslim (up from 38.0%), while 22.3% described themselves as Christian (down from 29.8% the decade before).

There are many factors that can cause changes to the religious profile of an area, such as a changing age structure or residents relocating for work or education. Changes may also be caused by differences in the way individuals chose to self-identify between censuses. Religious affiliation is the religion with which someone connects or identifies, rather than their beliefs or religious practice.

Read the bulletin Religion, England and Wales: Census 2021.

In 2021, 26.6% of usual residents in Tower Hamlets reported having "No religion"

Percentage of usual residents by religion,
0%
2011
2021


comparisons
Classification 2011_Tower Hamlets_% 2021_Tower Hamlets_% 2011_London_% 2021_London_% 2011_England_%2021_England_% Percentage in Tower Hamlets Percentage in undefined
No religion 21.0 26.6 21.0 27.1 24.8 36.7 21.0%
26.6%
Christian 29.8 22.3 48.7 40.7 59.4 46.3 29.8%
22.3%
Buddhist 1.2 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.5 0.5 1.2%
1.0%
Hindu 1.8 2.0 5.0 5.1 1.5 1.8 1.8%
2.0%
Jewish 0.6 0.4 1.8 1.7 0.5 0.5 0.6%
0.4%
Muslim 38.0 39.9 12.6 15.0 5.0 6.7 38.0%
39.9%
Sikh 0.4 0.3 1.5 1.6 0.8 0.9 0.4%
0.3%
Other 0.4 0.5 0.6 1.0 0.4 0.6 0.4%
0.5%
Not answered 6.9 6.9 7.7 7.0 7.1 6.0 6.9%
6.9%

Source: Office for National Statistics – 2011 Census and Census 2021

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National identity in Tower Hamlets

Of Tower Hamlets residents, 26.5% did not identify with any national identity associated with the UK in 2021, up from 25.4% in 2011.

In 2021, just under 1 in 20 people (4.8%) identified with a UK and non-UK national identity, compared with 2.4% in 2011. The percentage of residents in Tower Hamlets that identified as "British only" increased from 40.6% to 57.9%.

The percentage of people who did not identify with any national identity associated with the UK was 22.5% (similar to 2011) across London. Across England, the percentage increased from 8.2% to 10.0%.

In Census 2021, “British” was moved to the top response option and this may have influenced how people described their national identity. For further information, please see our quality report.

The percentage of people who did not identify with at least one UK national identity in Tower Hamlets increased by 1.1 percentage points

Percentage of usual residents by national identity,
0%
2011
2021


comparisons
Classification 2011_Tower Hamlets_% 2021_Tower Hamlets_% 2011_London_% 2021_London_% 2011_England_%2021_England_% Percentage in Tower Hamlets Percentage in undefined
British only identity 40.6 57.9 30.9 56.9 19.2 56.8 40.6%
57.9%
Welsh only identity 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.3 0.4%
0.2%
Welsh and British only identity 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1%
0.1%
English only identity 25.7 4.8 37.1 8.2 60.4 15.3 25.7%
4.8%
English and British only identity 4.0 4.8 5.4 6.8 9.1 14.3 4.0%
4.8%
Any other combination of only UK identities 1.4 0.9 1.3 0.9 1.6 1.1 1.4%
0.9%
Non-UK identity only 25.4 26.5 22.4 22.5 8.2 10.0 25.4%
26.5%
UK identity and non-UK identity 2.4 4.8 2.3 4.4 0.9 2.0 2.4%
4.8%

Source: Office for National Statistics – 2011 Census and Census 2021

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Ethnic groups in Tower Hamlets

In 2021, 44.4% of Tower Hamlets residents identified their ethnic group within the "Asian, Asian British or Asian Welsh" category, up from 41.1% in 2011. The 3.3 percentage-point change was the largest increase among high-level ethnic groups in this area.

Across London, the percentage of people from the "Asian, Asian British or Asian Welsh" ethnic group increased from 18.5% to 20.7%, while across England the percentage increased from 7.8% to 9.6%.

In 2021, 39.4% of people in Tower Hamlets identified their ethnic group within the "White" category (compared with 45.2% in 2011), while 7.3% identified their ethnic group within the "Black, Black British, Black Welsh, Caribbean or African" category (also 7.3% the previous decade).

The percentage of people who identified their ethnic group within the "Mixed or Multiple" category increased from 4.1% in 2011 to 5.0% in 2021.

There are many factors that may be contributing to the changing ethnic composition of England and Wales, such as differing patterns of ageing, fertility, mortality, and migration. Changes may also be caused by differences in the way individuals chose to self-identify between censuses.

Read the bulletin Ethnic group, England and Wales: Census 2021.

In 2021, 44.4% of usual residents in Tower Hamlets identified their ethnic group within the "Asian, Asian British or Asian Welsh" category

Percentage of usual residents by ethnic group,
0%
2011
2021


comparisons
Classification 2011_Tower Hamlets_% 2021_Tower Hamlets_% 2011_London_% 2021_London_% 2011_England_%2021_England_% Percentage in Tower Hamlets Percentage in undefined
Asian, Asian British or Asian Welsh 41.1 44.4 18.5 20.7 7.8 9.6 41.1%
44.4%
Black, Black British, Black Welsh, Caribbean or African 7.3 7.3 13.3 13.5 3.5 4.2 7.3%
7.3%
Mixed or Multiple ethnic groups 4.1 5.0 5.0 5.7 2.3 3.0 4.1%
5.0%
White 45.2 39.4 59.8 53.8 85.4 81.0 45.2%
39.4%
Other ethnic groups 2.3 3.9 3.4 6.3 1.0 2.2 2.3%
3.9%

Source: Office for National Statistics – 2011 Census and Census 2021

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About the data

Census data are adjusted to reflect estimated non-response so that the published results relate to the entire usually resident population as it was on Census Day (21 March 2021).

Those respondents who were on furlough because of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic were asked to classify themselves as "temporarily away from work" to ensure they remained in the economically active population.

Students are counted as usually resident at their term-time address even if they were not physically present there on Census Day.

The questions relating to disability differed slightly between 2011 and 2021 to ensure that data were more closely aligned with the definition of disability in the Equality Act (2010). There was also a change to question wording for unpaid care, for more information read the health, disability and unpaid care quality information.

Age-standardised proportions are used throughout the health, disability and unpaid care sections. They allow for fairer comparisons between populations over time and across geographies, as they account for differences in the population size and age structure. The 2013 European Standard Population is used to standardise proportions.

Percentages and percentage point changes have been individually rounded to one decimal place. This means they may not sum exactly.

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About these articles

There is an article like this for every local authority district in England and Wales. The articles have been written and semi-automated by our data journalists and are a new publishing format for the Office for National Statistics.

Topics are chosen and ordered automatically based on how relevant they are for each area, however all data are checked before publishing.

We have not included topics that were new for Census 2021 or where there is no comparability with the 2011 Census. Read about how we developed and tested the questions for Census 2021.

These articles were first published on 8 December 2022 covering topics such as demography, country of birth, ethnic groups, religion, national identity and economic activity status. They were updated on 19 January 2023 following the release of more data from Census 2021 and now include housing tenure, general health, disability and unpaid care.

All versions of this article

Related links

Census 2021 topic summaries

Supporting information | Released 2 November 2022

What topic summary data for Census 2021 will be available and how to view them.

Census maps

Interactive tool | Released 8 December 2022

Use our interactive map to find out what people’s lives are like across England and Wales.

How well do you know your area?

Digital Content Article | Released 2 December 2022

Test your knowledge of where you live with our Census quiz.

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census.customerservices@ons.gov.uk

Telephone: +44 1329 44 4972

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