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Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccination


Third vaccination rates were lower in those who lived in deprived areas, those who identified as being from a non-white ethnic minority, worked outside the home for five or more days a week, or who had previously been infected with COVID-19 (using information from survey visits between 21 February and 20 March 2022).

Vaccinated people continued to be less likely to test positive for COVID-19 (13 March to 26 March 2022). Unvaccinated school pupils were more likely to test positive in the Autumn 2021 term.

Official data updated daily on the number of people who have received a COVID-19 vaccination are available on the GOV.UK coronavirus dashboard.

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Vaccine effectiveness

Unvaccinated people were more likely to be admitted to critical care with COVID-19

Rate of admission to critical care with confirmed COVID-19 by vaccination status, for patients admitted 1 May 2021 to 31 January 2022, England

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Rates of admission to critical care with COVID-19 are lower for individuals who have received one or more doses of a COVID-19 vaccine compared with those who are unvaccinated. This is true for all groups aged 18 years and over. The difference is largest in those aged 60 to 69 years, with an admission rate of 43.65 per 100,000 per week for those who were unvaccinated between May 2021 and January 2022, compared with a rate of less than 1 per 100,000 per week for those who had received one or more vaccine doses. The difference was smallest in those aged 18 to 29 years.

This analysis includes all admissions to critical care of patients aged 18 years or over, resident in England, and with a linked positive COVID-19 test between 28 days before and 2 days after admission to the critical care unit. This can include patients who tested positive for COVID-19 but where this was not the primary reason for their admission to critical care, although the number of such admissions was low during the analysis period. You can read about the primary reason for admission for patients admitted to critical care with COVID-19 on our Hospitals insights page.

Last updated: 20/05/2022

Read more about this in the ICNARC report on COVID-19 in critical care: England, Wales and Northern Ireland

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Those vaccinated more recently were generally less likely to test positive

Estimated likelihood of testing positive for coronavirus on nose and throat swabs by vaccination status and previous infection, UK, 24 April to 7 May 2022

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People previously infected with COVID-19 continued to be less likely to test positive than those who have not experienced a prior infection, according to data collected in the two weeks up to 7 May 2022.

People who reported being unvaccinated were more likely to test positive than people who reported receiving:

  • a fourth COVID-19 vaccine 15 to 90 days previously

  • any COVID-19 vaccine up to 14 days previously

You can read about other characteristics that affect the likelihood of testing positive on our Infections page.

Last updated: 25/05/2022

Read more about this in our Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey, UK: characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19, 25 May 2022 bulletin

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Vaccination rates

The proportion of people aged 18 years and over who received three vaccinations was highest for those identifying as White British (76%). The lowest proportion of people was in Black Caribbean (38%), Black African (45%) and Pakistani (45%) ethnic groups. 

The proportion of adults who received three vaccinations was also lower for those: 

  • living in more deprived areas, urban areas, or social rented housing 

  • who were not born in the UK or did not have English as a main language 

  • who have never worked or are long-term unemployed 

  • who are limited a lot by a disability 

  • who identify as Muslim 

  • who were male  

Last updated: 13/05/2022

Find out more in our Coronavirus and vaccination rates in people aged 18 years and over by sociodemographic characteristic and region, England dataset

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Those living in more deprived areas were less likely to have received a third vaccination

Across all age groups, people were less likely to have received a third vaccination if they:

  • lived in a more deprived area

  • identified as being from a non-white ethnic minority group

  • worked outside the home for 5 or more days a week

  • had previously been infected with COVID-19

Among those aged 18 to 64 years, the following groups were less likely to have received a third vaccination:

  • smoked tobacco or vaped

  • worked in hospitality or manufacturing sectors

  • were not currently working or worked entirely from home

  • were male

Last updated: 21/04/2022

Read more about this in our Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey technical article: Analysis of characteristics associated with third vaccination uptake

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Younger age groups were less likely to have received a third COVID-19 vaccination than older age groups. Of those eligible, 80% of those aged 18 to 34 years had received a third vaccination, compared with 93% of those aged 35 to 64 years and 98% of those aged 65 years and over. 

Last updated: 21/04/2022

Read more about this in our Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey technical article: Analysis of characteristics associated with third vaccination uptake

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Among those aged 18 to 34 years, those living in larger households were less likely to have received a third vaccination

The likelihood of having received a third vaccination against COVID-19 by core demographic characteristics; 18- to 34-year-olds, UK, 21 February to 20 March 2022

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Vaccination rates were lowest in those aged 18 to 34 years, with 80% reporting having received a third vaccination. People in this age group were less likely to have received a third vaccination if they: 

  • were male 

  • lived in larger households 

  • lived in more deprived areas 

  • identified as being from a non-white ethnic minority group 

Results from those aged 35 to 64 years and those aged 65 years and over are available in our article on the characteristics associated with third vaccination uptake

Last updated: 21/04/2022

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Read more about this in our Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey technical article: Analysis of characteristics associated with third vaccination uptake.

Vaccination rates varied by occupation groups. Health professionals (84.7%) and teaching and other educational professionals (83.6%) were most likely to have received three vaccinations. These groups also had the lowest proportions of people who had not received a vaccine (3.1% and 4.2%, respectively).

Those working in elementary trades and related occupations (57.6%) and skilled construction and building trades (61.8%) were the least likely to have received three vaccinations. These groups also had the highest proportions of people who had not received a vaccination (15.1% and 12.7%, respectively).

Differences in vaccination status between occupations were not driven by geographical, socio-demographic and health differences, as the ranking remained largely unchanged after adjusting for these factors.

Last updated: 01/04/2022

Read more about this in our Coronavirus and vaccination rates in people aged 18 to 64 years by occupation, England: 28 February 2021 bulletin

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Vaccinations in young people

Unvaccinated pupils were more likely to become infected with COVID-19 in the Autumn 2021 term

Compared with unvaccinated pupils, those aged 12 to 15 years who had received one vaccine dose more than 14 days ago:

  • were 38% less likely to report a positive test in the first half of the Autumn 2021 term (20 September to 3 November 2021)

  • were 23% less likely to report a positive test in the second half of the Autumn 2021 term (4 November to 17 December 2021)

The lower estimates in the second half of the Autumn term may reflect waning protection and reduced vaccine effectiveness against the Omicron variant, which became more common towards the end of the term.

This analysis controlled for differences in the characteristics between vaccinated and unvaccinated pupils.

Last updated: 24/03/2022

Read more about this in our Coronavirus (COVID-19) cases in school pupils, England: up to 31 December 2021 article

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The majority of higher education students have received at least one vaccine dose

Of higher education students in England between 25 February and 7 March 2022: 

  • the majority had already received at least one vaccine dose (92%)  

  • 65% reported that they have received the booster dose 

  • around 7 in 10 (70%) students who have not received a booster dose reported they were very or fairly likely to have one or had an appointment confirmed.   

Last updated: 21/03/2022

Read more about this in our Coronavirus and higher education students: England, 25 February to 7 March 2022 bulletin

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There were large differences in vaccine uptake by ethnicity for pupils aged 12 to 15 years, with a 63 percentage point difference between the most and least vaccinated groups (up to 9 January 2022). Pupils from the Chinese (75.5%) and Indian (65.7%) ethnic groups were most likely to have been vaccinated whilst those from the Gypsy/Roma and Black Caribbean (both 12.4%) ethnic groups were least likely to have been vaccinated.

Last updated: 01/02/2022

Read more about this in our Vaccine uptake in school pupils, England: up to 9 January 2022 article

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Schools with higher proportions of pupils eligible for free school meals (FSM) had lower vaccination rates (up to 9 January 2022). Schools with more than half of their pupils accessing FSM had a median vaccination rate of 29.2%, compared with schools where less than 5% of pupils accessed FSM which had a median vaccination rate of 73.2%.

Free school meals (FSM) are a statutory benefit available to school aged children from families who meet the qualifying criteria (predominantly based around income), which is published by the Department for Education. Here, we have defined FSM as pupils having been eligible for FSM in the last six years, using information recorded by schools as part of the English Schools Census. As a result, the proportion of FSM-eligible pupils in a school can be considered a measure for the level of deprivation in that school.

Last updated: 01/02/2022

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Read more about this in our Vaccine uptake in school pupils, England: up to 9 January 2022 article

For pupils aged 5 to 11 years, 62% of their parents said they were likely to agree to their child having a COVID-19 vaccine compared with 24% who said they were unlikely to agree to their child having a vaccine (22 November to 15 December 2021). The most common reasons for parents not wanting their child to be vaccinated included worrying about the side effects (54%) and wanting to wait to see how it works for children aged 5 to 11 years (49%).

The sample size of children whose parents were unlikely to agree to them getting a COVID-19 vaccine was 582.

Last updated: 01/02/2022

Read more about this in our COVID19 Schools Infection Survey, Round 1 initial analysis bulletin

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Further information


On this page we present vaccination estimates from the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey and vaccine attitudes from the Opinions and Lifestyle Survey. These are different from official vaccination records reported on GOV.UK coronavirus dashboard.

To find out more about vaccination data from different sources visit our more information page.

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Contact

Latest insights team
infection.survey.analysis@ons.gov.uk