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Comparing different data types and sources


Here we present charts comparing data about the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic across various sources. You can read more about how these sources differ from each other on our more information page.

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Infections, hospital admissions and deaths in England

Infections and hospitalisations increased, while deaths decreased

Estimated coronavirus (COVID-19) positivity rates, overall hospital admissions, intensive care unit (ICU) and high dependency unit (HDU) admissions, and number of deaths, England, 6 August 2020 to 25 September 2022

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The percentage of people testing positive for COVID-19 in England continued to increase to 1.57% in the week ending 17 September 2022.

Overall hospital admissions remained similar at 4.96 per 100,000 people, and intensive care unit (ICU) and high dependency unit (HDU) admissions remained low at 0.17 per 100,000 people in the week ending 18 September 2022. However, in the latest week (ending 25 September 2022) hospital admissions increased to 7.62 per 100,000 people while ICU and HDU admissions remained low at 0.25 per 100,000 people.

The number of deaths involving COVID-19 registered in England decreased to 280 in the week ending 16 September 2022 from 339 in the previous week (ending 9 September). However, the number of death registrations in the previous week (ending 9 September 2022) was affected by the bank holiday on 29 August 2022, and caution is needed when comparing across weeks.

The hospital admission rate and number of deaths involving COVID-19 are lower now than earlier in the coronavirus pandemic, despite similar infection levels.

Hospitalisation data are more recent than the latest available infections and deaths data, therefore trends for hospitalisations are also presented for the previous week to allow comparison across the different measures. There is a delay (lag) between a person becoming infected with COVID-19 and being admitted to hospital or dying, and this is reflected in the lags in trends.

The data used in the chart come from our Coronavirus Infection Survey, UKHSA's National flu and COVID-19 surveillance reports, and our Deaths registered weekly in England and Wales, provisional bulletin.

Last updated: 30/09/2022

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Comparisons by age group

Infections increased in all age groups in England

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In England, the positivity rate continued to increase in those in school Year 7 to school Year 11 and those aged 25 to 34 years in the latest week (ending 17 September 2022). Infection rates also increased in all other age groups in the latest week, following an uncertain trend in the previous week.

The age groups with the highest and lowest infections rates have varied throughout the pandemic.

The data used in this chart come from our Coronavirus Infection Survey.

Hospital admissions remain highest for those aged 85 years and over

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Overall hospital admission rates for COVID-19-confirmed patients in England increased in groups aged 15 years and over, and remained similar in groups aged under 15 years (week ending 25 September 2022). Trends in ICU and HDU admissions varied across age groups in the latest week.

Overall hospital admissions were highest for those aged 85 years and over and lowest for children aged 5 to 14 years. This has been consistent throughout the coronavirus pandemic. ICU and HDU admission rates were highest for those aged 85 years and over, and lowest for those aged 5 to 14 years. Although overall hospital admission rates have consistently been highest in the oldest age group, the highest ICU and HDU admission rates have varied across groups aged 55 years and over.

The data used in this chart come from UKHSA's National flu and COVID-19 surveillance reports.

Deaths remain highest for those aged 85 years and over

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Trends in deaths involving COVID-19 in England varied across age groups in the week ending 16 September 2022. Deaths involving COVID-19:

  • remained low across groups aged under 45 years

  • remained similar for those aged 55 to 64 years

  • decreased in groups aged 45 to 54 years, 65 to 74 years, and 85 years and over

  • increased for those aged 75 to 84 years

However, the number of death registrations in the previous week (ending 9 September 2022) was affected by the bank holiday on 29 August 2022, and caution is needed when comparing across weeks.

Deaths involving COVID-19 were highest for those aged 85 years and over (113 deaths) and lowest for groups aged under 25 years, where there were none (week ending 16 September 2022). This has been consistent throughout the coronavirus pandemic and reflects the highest overall hospital admission rates in the oldest age groups.

The data in this chart come from our Deaths registered weekly in England and Wales, provisional bulletin.

Last updated: 30/09/2022

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Comparisons by region

Infections increased in most English regions and hospitalisations increased in all

Estimated coronavirus (COVID-19) positivity rates, overall hospital admission rates with intensive care unit (ICU) and high dependency unit (HDU) admissions, and number of deaths, by English regions, 30 July to 25 September 2022

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The percentage of people testing positive for COVID-19 increased in the North West, Yorkshire and the Humber, the West Midlands, the East of England, London, and the South East in the latest week (ending 17 September 2022). The trend was uncertain in all other regions.

In the week ending 18 September 2022, overall hospital admissions increased in the North West and East of England, remained similar in the South East and Yorkshire and The Humber, and decreased in all other regions. ICU and HDU admissions remained low across all regions. In the latest week (ending 25 September 2022), overall hospital admissions increased in all regions of England and ICU and HDU admissions varied across regions, with admissions remaining low in most. The East of England and London had the highest rates of ICU and HDU admissions.

Deaths involving COVID-19 increased in Yorkshire and The Humber, remained similar in the North East, and decreased in all other regions in the week ending 16 September 2022. However, the number of death registrations in the previous week (ending 9 September 2022) was affected by the bank holiday on 29 August 2022, and caution is needed when comparing across weeks.

Hospitalisation data are more recent than the latest available infections and deaths data, therefore trends for hospitalisations are also presented for the previous week to allow comparison across the different measures. There is a delay between a person becoming infected with COVID-19 and being admitted to hospital or dying, and this is reflected in the lags in trends. Deaths figures are the number of deaths registered in the time period. The number of deaths in each region will be affected by population size and do not necessarily reflect the rate of deaths.

The data used in the chart come from our Coronavirus Infection Survey, UKHSA's National flu and COVID-19 surveillance reports, and our Deaths registered weekly in England and Wales, provisional bulletin.

Last updated: 30/09/2022

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Winter COVID-19 and flu deaths

Deaths due to COVID-19 were higher than those due to flu and pneumonia in winter 2021/22, but much lower than in 2020/21

Monthly deaths registered due to flu and pneumonia in December to March, England and Wales, 2001 to 2022, and deaths due to COVID-19, December to March, 2020 to 2022

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During the winter of 2020/21, deaths due to both COVID-19 and flu and pneumonia exceeded those due to flu and pneumonia alone in pre-coronavirus years. In the latest winter (December 2021 to March 2022), the number of deaths with COVID-19 as the underlying cause has fallen more in line with those due to flu and pneumonia in pre-pandemic years. However, the number of deaths due to COVID-19 is still double the amount of deaths due to flu and pneumonia in the same period.

There have been considerably fewer deaths due to flu and pneumonia over the last two winters compared with previous years, with deaths due to flu and pneumonia at historic lows. Although deaths due to flu and pneumonia seem to be rising again and deaths due to COVID-19 are decreasing, deaths due to COVID-19 remain higher than deaths due to flu and pneumonia.

Infection and antibody levels, vaccination rates, restrictions and differences between COVID-19 variants all affect the data we have on COVID-19 mortality. Some of these factors also have affected flu and pneumonia deaths over the same period.

Last updated: 23/05/2022

Read more about this in our How coronavirus (COVID-19) compares with flu as a cause of death article

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Further information


This page provides an overview of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in the UK, bringing together data from multiple sources. Each graphic provides a link to explore the topic further.

To read about different data sources used in this tool see our more information page.

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