Explore by topic

Comparing different data types and sources


Here we present charts comparing data about the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic across various sources. You can read more about how these sources differ from each other on our more information page.

On this page

Infections, hospital admissions and deaths in England

Hospital admissions and deaths remain lower than during the second wave Alpha variant peak

Estimated coronavirus (COVID-19) positivity rates, overall hospital admissions, intensive care unit (ICU) and high dependency unit (HDU) admissions, and number of deaths, England, 1 August 2020 to 8 May 2022

Embed code

Download the data

The percentage of the population testing positive for COVID-19 in England continued to decrease to 2.21% in the week ending 7 May 2022. Overall hospital admissions of COVID-19-confirmed patients decreased to 7.87 per 100,000 people and intensive care unit (ICU) and high dependency unit (HDU) admissions remained very low at 0.30 per 100,000 people in the week ending 8 May 2022. The number of deaths involving COVID-19 registered in England decreased to 690 in the week ending 6 May 2022.   

Despite infection levels being higher than during the second wave Alpha variant peak in early 2021, hospital admissions and deaths have remained lower since mid-December 2021. Compared with the latest week, overall hospital admissions were almost five times higher (36.68 per 100,000 people, week ending 10 January 2021), ICU and HDU admissions were almost nine times higher (2.61 per 100,000 people, week ending 17 January 2021) and the number of deaths involving COVID-19 was almost 12 times higher (8,063, week ending 29 January 2021) in the second wave peak.

There is a delay (lag) between a person becoming infected with COVID-19 and being admitted to hospital or dying as a result of infection. Therefore, we expect changes in trends in hospital admissions, ICU and HDU admissions, and deaths to be observed later than changes in infection trends.

The data used in the chart come from the Coronavirus Infection Survey, National flu and COVID-19 surveillance reports, and Deaths registered weekly in England and Wales, provisional.

Last updated: 17/05/2022 

🠕 Back to the top

Comparisons by age group

 Hospital admissions and deaths were highest among older people

Estimated percentage of the population testing positive for COVID-19 in the week ending 7 May 2022, hospital admission rates in the week ending 8 May 2022, and deaths registered in the week ending 6 May 2022, by age, England

Embed code

Download the data

Infections decreased in all age groups in the latest week (ending 7 May 2022), except for those in School Years 7 to 11, for whom the trend was uncertain. Infections were highest in those aged 50 to 69 years, and lowest for those in School Years 7 to 11.

Hospital admission rates decreased in all age groups in the latest week (ending 8 May 2022) and are now the lowest seen in 2022 for all age groups. The largest decrease was for those aged 85 years and over. However, admission rates remained highest in this group. Admission rates remained lowest in those aged between 5 and 14 years.

The number of deaths involving COVID-19 decreased across most age groups, but there was a very small increase in those aged 55 to 64 years. Deaths remained similar in children aged 1 to 14 years and remained at zero in those aged under 1 year in the latest week (ending 6 May 2022). Deaths were highest in those aged 85 years and over (335 deaths) and lowest in those aged under 1 year, where there were none.

The data used in the chart come from the Coronavirus Infection Survey, National flu and COVID-19 surveillance reports, and Deaths registered weekly in England and Wales, provisional.

Last updated: 17/05/2022

🠕 Back to the top

Comparisons by age group over time

Trends in infections, hospitalisations and deaths varied across age groups

Infections, hospital admissions and deaths involving COVID-19, by age, England, since week ending 7 May 2021

Embed code

Download the data

This interactive heatmap shows trends in infections, hospital admissions and deaths involving COVID-19 across age groups. Darker shades of colour indicate higher values. Select an age group to view the figures for a given week.

The figures for infections are modelled estimates reported at the time of publication of official estimates for that week. This means that values for each week come from a separate model using most recent data available at the time. Until 20 August 2021, positivity rates by age were based on a selected "average" region (East Midlands). Therefore, results published before that date are not comparable with national positivity estimates.

The data used in the chart come from the Coronavirus Infection Survey, National flu and COVID-19 surveillance reports, and Deaths registered weekly in England and Wales, provisional.

Last updated: 17/05/2022 

🠕 Back to the top

Comparisons by region

Hospital admissions and deaths decreased in all English regions

Change in hospital admission rates and numbers of deaths involving COVID-19 from previous week, England, weeks ending 8 May and 6 May 2022

Embed code

Download the data

Hospital admission rates of COVID-19-confirmed patients decreased in all English regions (week ending 8 May 2022). The largest decrease was in the North East.

The number of registered deaths involving COVID-19 decreased in all English regions (week ending 6 May 2022). The largest decrease was in the South West, where the number of deaths almost halved. The number of deaths in each region will be affected by population size and do not necessarily reflect the rate of deaths.

The data used in the chart come from National flu and COVID-19 surveillance reports, and Deaths registered weekly in England and Wales, provisional.

Last updated: 17/05/2022

🠕 Back to the top

Trends in the number of new cases

Coronavirus Infection Survey reports a higher number of new daily COVID-19 cases, compared with NHS Test and Trace

Number of new positive coronavirus (COVID-19) cases, by specimen date, from Pillars 1 and 2 and estimated numbers of new PCR-positive COVID-19 cases, 19 April 2021 to 23 April 2022, England

Embed code

Download the data

Number of new daily cases reported by the Coronavirus Infection Survey (CIS) has been consistently higher than NHS Test and Trace data over recent months. This may be because CIS estimates all new cases in the population, while NHS Test and Trace data reports only on the individuals tested. The latter depends on testing capacity or reasons why people get tested (for example, having symptoms). From 11 January 2022, the government guidance to take a confirmatory PCR test following a positive result on a lateral flow device was removed. Changes to COVID-19 testing in England from 1 April 2022 meant that all free mass testing for the general public ended. These changes will have affected the number of positives reported.

You can read more about the differences between CIS and Test and Trace data on our more information page.

Last updated: 13/05/2022

Read more about this in GOV.UK coronavirus dashboard.

🠕 Back to the top

Antibody trends

Antibody positivity remains high across data sources

Estimated percentage of adults testing positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, 7 December 2020 to 5 May 2022, England

Embed code

Download the data

The proportion of people aged 16 years and over testing positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in England increased between December 2020 and April 2022. The Coronavirus Infection Survey (CIS), UK Health Security Agency data from NHS Blood and Transplant (NHS-BT) blood donors, and Real-time Assessment of Community Transmission-2 (REACT-2) show similar trends in antibody positivity.

NHS-BT results are higher because of differences between sources in the antibody concentration threshold for a positive test. This chart presents CIS estimates using an antibody level of 179 ng/ml, which will show any changes in antibody levels earlier. For details see the antibodies section on our more information page.

Last updated: 18/05/2022

🠕 Back to the top

Comparison of second and third waves

Hospital admissions and deaths were consistently lower in the third wave

Estimated percentage of the population testing positive for COVID-19, number of hospital admissions per 100,000 people, and number of deaths involving COVID-19, England

Embed code

Download the data

Hospital admission rates and number of deaths involving COVID-19 in the third wave were consistently lower than when infection rates were at a similar level during the second wave.

In the week ending 23 December (week 31 of the third wave), Omicron became the dominant variant of COVID-19 in England, causing a sharp rise in infection levels. Emergence of this new variant meant that comparing second and third waves week by week was no longer appropriate. This chart remains a good illustration of differences between the first 30 weeks of the second and third waves but will no longer be updated.

The second wave of COVID-19 infections is estimated to have started in the week beginning 4 September 2020, and the third wave in the week beginning 23 May 2021. The second wave ended after 33 weeks. However, these are not exact dates and should be treated with caution. You can read more about definitions of waves and lags of COVID-19 in England in our technical article.

The data used in the chart come from the Coronavirus Infection Survey, National flu and COVID-19 surveillance reports, and Deaths registered weekly in England and Wales, provisional.

Last updated: 18/01/2022

🠕 Back to the top

Further information


This page provides an overview of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in the UK, bringing together data from multiple sources. Each graphic provides a link to explore the topic further.

To read about different data sources used in this tool see our more information page.

🠕 Back to the top


Embed code