Owner occupiers’ housing costs (OOH) in the UK under the rental equivalence approach have grown by 1.2% in Quarter 1 (Jan to Mar) 2018 compared with the corresponding quarter of the previous year.
OOH according to the net acquisitions approach have grown by 3.1% in Quarter 1 2018 compared with the corresponding quarter of the previous year.
OOH compiled using the payments approach experienced growth of 3.2% in Quarter 1 2018 compared with the corresponding quarter of the previous year.
Owner occupiers’ housing costs (OOH) are the costs of housing services associated with owning, maintaining and living in one’s own home. This is distinct from the cost of purchasing a house, which is partly for the accumulation of wealth and partly for housing services.
In this article, we focus on three approaches to measuring OOH: payments, rental equivalence and net acquisitions, and evaluate the performance of the different measures over time, in prevailing economic conditions. The series will be updated on a quarterly basis. We invite you to submit feedback on this release to firstname.lastname@example.org.
The first article in the series provides more information about the different approaches to measuring owner occupiers’ housing costs to aid your understanding of the differences in concept and underlying methodology. There have also been a number of “Spotlight” sections produced, which focus in on a particular topic. For a list of subjects covered, please see Annex 1. We will continue to produce these Spotlights as and when there is need.
You should note that the payments approach and net acquisitions are both experimental indices and therefore we would caution against any use other than for research purposes. More information on the methodology for each approach can also be found in the CPIH compendium.
We would like to make users aware that the title for this series of articles will change at the time of the next release. The title of the next article will be “Measures of owner occupiers' housing costs, UK: April to June 2018”. The title of all past articles in this series will also change, however, the series will remain in the same location on the ONS website.Back to table of contents
Figure 1 presents the cumulative indices for each approach and Figure 2 shows the annual growth rates. The index for the net acquisitions approach – OOH(NA) – has been consistently larger than the payments and rental equivalence approaches since Quarter 4 (Oct to Dec) 2009. Over the period, the rental equivalence approach – OOH(RE) – experienced the least fluctuations in the 12-month growth rate. The annual growth rate of OOH(NA) was 3.1% in the first quarter (Jan to Mar) of 2018.
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This section shows which components are contributing the most to the year-on-year quarterly growth rate for the payments approach and the net acquisitions approach. Because of the methodology used to calculate the rental equivalence approach – OOH(RE) – it is not possible to present a contributions chart for this approach. This is mainly because OOH(RE) is not constructed using a set of sub-indices that measure different concepts (for example, maintenance costs and Stamp Duty), but instead is aggregated from indices measuring the same concept across regions.
Figure 3 presents the contributions to the quarterly growth rate of OOH(payments) from the sub-indices used in its construction. The largest positive contributor to OOH(payments) in Quarter 1 (Jan to Mar) 2018 was Council Tax, which contributed 1.6 percentage points to the quarterly growth rate. This is consistent with previous quarters.
Mortgage interest payments contributed 0.6 percentage points in Quarter 1 2018. This is the first time that the contribution from mortgage interest payments has turned positive since Quarter 2 (Apr to June) 2015. This increase is likely due to the increase in the base rate to 0.5% by the Bank of England in November 2017 continuing to filter through to mortgage interest rates.
Net acquisitions approach
Figure 4 shows the contributions to quarter on corresponding quarter of previous year growth rate for OOH net acquisitions – OOH(NA). The new dwellings component remains the largest contributor to OOH(NA) growth, decreasing slightly from 2.4 percentage points in the last quarter (Oct to Dec) of 2017 to 2.3 percentage points in Quarter 1 2018. The components “existing dwellings new to households” and “other services related to ownership of dwellings” are not included due to lack of data and therefore contribute 0 percentage points.
How do the approaches differ?
The rental equivalence approach – OOH(RE) – uses the rent paid for an equivalent house as an estimate of the cost of housing services that are consumed. In other words, we value housing services by looking at the cost of the next best alternative to home ownership, namely renting a property. Importantly, OOH(RE) does not capture changes in asset value; rather it measures the change in price of housing services provided.
The payments approach – OOH(payments) – aims to measure the payments related to the ownership of owner occupied housing. This means that all payments that households make as owner occupiers when consuming housing should be included, such as mortgage interest payments, transaction costs and running costs.
OOH(payments) is not our favoured method to measuring owner occupiers’ housing costs (OOH) in the Consumer Prices Index including owner occupiers’ housing costs (CPIH). This is because a consumer price index aims to measure consumption and interest payments represent the cost of borrowing money rather than the cost of consumption. However, OOH(payments) is our preferred measure for the Household Costs Indices (HCIs), which depart from consumption principles, and aim to capture households’ experience of changing prices and costs. For more information about the HCIs please see the article, Developing the Household Costs Indices (HCIs).
The net acquisitions approach – OOH(NA) – aims to measure the costs of acquiring a house with household to household transactions netted off. The approach theoretically treats a home as the purchase of a good that is part asset (the land) and part consumable (the house) and excludes the land component from the index. OOH(NA) also includes costs associated with buying and maintaining a house; for example, self-builds and renovations, repairs and maintenance, transfer costs and dwelling insurance.
In practice, while the measure presented here is the best measure of OOH(NA) that we can currently produce, the lack of available source data means that some components are not recorded fully. We therefore advise that OOH(NA) should be used and referred to with caution and it is consequently not our favoured approach of measuring OOH in the Consumer Prices Index including owner occupiers’ housing costs (CPIH).
Table 1: Components of the three approaches of measuring owner occupiers' housing
|Rental Equivalence||Payments||Net Acquisitions|
|Imputed rents||Mortgage interest payments||Acquisition of new dwellings|
|Council Tax (Great Britain)||Self-builds and renovations|
|Northern Ireland rates||Existing dwellings new to the OOH sector|
|Dwelling insurance||Services related to acquisition|
|Ground Rent||Major repairs and maintenance|
|Stamp Duty||Insurance connected with the dwelling|
|Estate Agent Fees||Other Services related to ownership of dwellings|
|Major repairs and maintenance|
|Source: Office for National Statistics|
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This is a list of topics that we have focused on in previous publications:Back to table of contents
In January 2017, we published a stand-alone piece of analysis Understanding the different approaches of measuring owner occupiers’ housing costs (OOH): Weights analysis that aggregated the different approaches to measuring owner occupiers’ housing costs (OOH) with the Consumer Prices Index (CPI) to create a hybrid aggregate inflation measure, which includes OOH as measured by each approach.
From March 2017, the Consumer Prices Index including owner occupiers’ housing costs (CPIH) was extended to include Council Tax. To ensure that CPIH is of the best possible quality, the full back series of CPIH has been revised to incorporate Council Tax and revised weights for OOH using the rental equivalence approach. This means that the CPIH series published in the dataset alongside this release will be different to that published in the January article.
There are also changes to the CPI-H(payments) and CPI-H (net acquisitions) series. To ensure coherence with the new CPIH series, CPI-H(NA) has been revised to include Council Tax. OOH (net acquisitions) remains the same.
For reference, the formula used to calculate the aggregate indices for CPI-H(payments) and CPI-H(NA) is as follows:
p is the price level.
q is the volume purchased.
r is the reference period.
t is the time period.
i is the items in the Consumer Prices Index basket.
CT is Council Tax.
CPIH is as published.Back to table of contents
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