The headline rate of output prices showed positive growth of 4.6% on the year to May 2021, up from positive growth of 4.0% in April 2021.
The headline rate of input prices showed positive growth of 10.7% on the year to May 2021, up from positive growth of 10.0% in April 2021; this is the highest the rate has been since September 2011.
Transport equipment, and metals and non-metallic minerals provided the largest upward contributions to the annual rates of output and input inflation respectively.
On the month, the rate of output inflation was 0.5% in May 2021, up from 0.4% in April 2021 (Table 1).
|All manufactured products (GB7S)|
|PPI Index (2015=100)||1-month rate||12-month rate||Change in the|
Download this table Table 1: Output prices, index values, growth rates and percentage point change to the 12-month rate.xls .csv
Transport equipment provided the largest upward contribution of 1.80 percentage points to the annual rate (Figure 2) and had positive annual price growth of 0.3% in May 2021 (Table 2).
The upward contribution is driven by weight changes in 2021. A 15.6% increase in weight for this category has resulted in a large upward contribution to the headline rate.
|1-month rate||12-month rate|
alcohol (excl. duty)
|Clothing, textile |
|Paper and |
products (excl. duty)
|Metal, machinery |
|Computer, electrical |
Download this table Table 2: Output prices, growth rates.xls .csv
The annual rate of output inflation increased by 0.6 percentage points from 4.0% in April 2021 to 4.6% in May 2021. Petroleum products had the highest annual growth rate of any component of output prices in May 2021, at 67.0% (Table 2). This was mainly driven by a base effect as there was only a relatively small price movement of 3.3% on the month. In May 2020, prices for petroleum products fell by 6.1% as there was a fall in demand in the market. More recently, prices have stabilised, and annual growth rates are higher than in recent months as they are now being compared with the exceptionally low prices at the beginning of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.
On the month, the rate of input inflation slowed to 1.1% in May 2021, down from 1.2% in April 2021 (Table 3).
|All materials and fuels purchased (GHIP)|
|1-month rate||12-month rate||Change in the|
Download this table Table 3: Input prices, index values, growth rates and percentage point change to the 12-.xls .csv
The annual rate of imported inputs was 5.2% in May 2021 (Table 4), down from 5.5% in April 2021.
|Imported materials and|
fuels purchased (GD74)
|Sterling effective exchange rate|
- month average (BK67)
|Change in the|
|Sterling Index |
Download this table Table 4: Imported materials and fuels purchased and sterling effective exchange rate, index values, growth rates and percentage point change to the 12-month rate.xls .csv
The largest upward contribution to the annual input inflation rate came from metals and non-metallic minerals, which contributed 4.36 percentage points (Figure 4) and had positive annual price growth of 18.5% in May 2021 (Table 5).
|Product group||Percentage change|
|1-month rate||12-month rate|
|Fuel excluding |
Climate Change Levy
|Metals & |
Download this table Table 5: Input prices, growth rates.xls .csv
The annual input inflation rate increased by 0.7 percentage points from 10.0% in April 2021 to 10.7% in May 2021.
Home food materials provided the largest upward contribution, at 0.41 percentage points.
Crude oil had the highest annual growth rate of any component of input prices in May 2021, at 109.2%, but had a downward contribution to the change in the annual rate as it fell from 128.4% in April. These annual growth rates reflect a base effect, where we saw exceptionally low crude oil prices at the beginning of the pandemic.
More about economy, business and jobs
Producer price inflation time series
Dataset | Released 16 June 2021
A comprehensive selection of data on input and output indices. Contains producer price indices of materials and fuels purchased and output of manufacturing industry by broad sector.
Output and input producer price inflation: contributions to the 12-month rates
Dataset | Released 16 June 2021
Contributions to the 12-month rates of input and output producer price inflation by component and overall rates.</p>
Producer price inflation
Dataset MM22 | Released 16 June 2021
UK price movement data at all manufacturing, aggregated industry and product group level. Data supplied from individual manufacturers, importers and exporters. Monthly, quarterly and annual data.
Producer price inflation
Changes in the prices of goods bought and sold by UK manufacturers including price indices of materials and fuels purchased (input prices) and factory gate prices (output prices).
The factory gate price (output price) is the amount received by UK producers for the goods that they sell to the domestic market. It includes the margin that businesses make on goods, in addition to costs such as labour, raw materials and energy, as well as interest on loans, site or building maintenance, or rent.
The input price measures the price of materials and fuels bought by UK manufacturers for processing. It includes materials and fuels that are both imported or sourced within the domestic market. It is not limited to materials used in the final product but includes what is required by businesses in their normal day-to-day running, such as fuels.
Services producer price inflation
Quarterly estimates monitoring the changes in prices charged for services provided to UK-based customers for a range of industries.Back to table of contents
Quality and methodology information on strengths, limitations, appropriate uses, and how the data were created is available in the Producer Price Index (PPI) Quality and Methodology Information report and the Services Producer Price Indices (SPPI) Quality and Methodology information report.
Other useful documentation for the Producer Price Index (PPI) and the Services Producer Price Index (SPPI) are:
Office for Statistics Regulation (OSR) publishing review
The Office for Statistics Regulation (OSR) is undertaking a review into whether the 9:30am release time stated in the Code of Practice for Statistics meets the needs of users. During the pandemic, exemptions were granted to allow the release of market sensitive statistics at 7:00am. The OSR welcomes views about the release time of official statistics by Friday 25 June 2021, please send comments to: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Sterling effective exchange rate
The sterling effective exchange rate measure s changes in the strength of sterling relative to basket of other currencies. The sterling effective exchange rate is only indicative of the rates applied to producer prices. This is because the sterling effective exchange rate is a trade weighted index that represents all UK trade, whereas producer prices reflect transaction in the manufacture sector.
End of EU exit transition period
As the UK enters into a new Trade and Co-operation Agreement with the EU, the UK statistical system will continue to produce and publish our wide range of economic and social statistics and analysis. We are committed to continued alignment with the highest international statistical standards, enabling comparability both over time and internationally, and ensuring the general public, statistical users and decision-makers have the data they need to be informed.
As the shape of the UK's future statistical relationship with the EU becomes clearer over the coming period, the ONS is making preparations to assume responsibilities that as part of our membership of the EU, and during the transition period, were delegated to the statistical office of the EU, Eurostat. This includes responsibilities relating to international comparability of economic statistics, deciding what international statistical guidance to apply in the UK context and to provide further scrutiny of our statistics and sector classification decisions.Back to table of contents
These data provide users with valuable insight into the changes in the process of goods and services bought and sold by UK manufacturers.
Our data is very comprehensive, covering many products at a much greater level of detail than other surveys.
Some products are produced by only a small number of manufacturers, meaning that there may not be enough manufacturers for a detailed and robust analysis and the sector may be volatile, requiring some estimation.
The data can be revised for 12 months.
The data for the latest two months of the Producer Price Index (PPI) and two quarters of the Services Producer Price Index (SPPI) are provisional.
Coronavirus in May 2021
Response rates for the domestic Producer Price Index (PPI) show a decrease between April 2021 and May 2021, whereas the response rates for the export (Export Price Index (EPI)) and import (Import Price Index (IPI)) show an increase between April 2021 and May 2021 (Table 6).
Download this table Table 6: Overall effective response rates at time of first publishing percentage, May 2020 to May 2021.xls .csv
Effective response rates exclude items permanently not available for collection.Back to table of contents
Contact details for this Statistical bulletin
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