The census plays a prominent role in social sciences. Population censuses are an important resource for research on trends in the composition of a population and its distribution, as well as a source of analysis and assessment of the changes occurring in the population, and construction of a forecast regarding the directions of its development. Furthermore, censuses benchmark and update the statistical base for population and households for use across all sectors over time.

Examples of the impact of census data:

Economic Statistics and Research Council's (ESRC) Centre for Population Change - The UKs first research centre on population change use census data in their work:

House of Commons Science and Technology Committee: The Census and social science report on the Parliament UK website