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Compare a local authority and the UK average (median) local authority by different indicators, such as weekly pay and healthy life expectancy.

You can also add and compare up to three other local authorities.

Where the chosen local authority is more than one standard deviation away from the median, you will see the indicators highlighted under "better than the median" or "worse than the median". Some indicators have higher values positioned on the left under "worse than the median" such as the percentage of smoking adults because it is more intuitive.

Links to the publicly available sources of the data displayed in the tool can be found within our accompanying dataset.

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Updates 16 March 2023

One new indicator has been included:

  • population under devolution deal in England

One existing indicator is now displayed in our interactive tool:

  • additions to the housing stock (rate per 1,000 stock)

The accompanying datasets include data for a range of additional geographies, for example city regions, English regions and UK nations, where available and methodologically comparable. For more details see column S of the data dictionary.

Confidence intervals for the indicators, where applicable and available, have been included in the accompanying dataset. A confidence interval is a measure of the uncertainty around a specific estimate. If a confidence interval is 95%, it is expected that the interval will contain the true value on 95 occasions if repeated 100 times. As intervals around estimates widen, the level of uncertainty about where the true value lies increases.


This interactive tool will be updated on a quarterly basis. The data displayed will not always match the most recent version of the related data source where new data and revisions become available in-between updates. Please refer to the data dictionary in the accompanying dataset for details on years covered and geographical coverage of each indicator, and for links to the original data sources. The data displayed are correct as of 9 February 2023.

This fifth iteration of our interactive tool shows 34 subnational indicators. Data for seven more indicators are available in the accompanying dataset and in the data download. These are:

  • total value of UK exports
  • inward foreign direct investment (FDI)
  • outward foreign direct investment (FDI)
  • 4G coverage
  • aged 19 years and over further education and skills achievements
  • homicide
  • population under devolution deal in England

The polarity of the indicator determines whether the lowest or highest value is positioned on the left-hand side of the jitter plot. The jitter plot presents the indicators so that "worse than the median" are on the left, and "better than the median" are on the right regardless of the value itself (for example, a high percentage of smoking adults is presented on the left-hand side). The indicators for which higher values are shown on the left are:

  • public transport or walk to employment centre with 500 to 4,999 jobs
  • cycle to employment centre with 500 to 4,999 jobs
  • drive to employment centre with 500 to 4,999 jobs
  • persistent absences for all pupils
  • persistent absences for pupils eligible for free school meals
  • persistent absences for pupils looked after by local authorities
  • cigarette smokers
  • overweight children at reception age (aged four to five years)
  • overweight children at Year 6 age (aged 10 to 11 years)
  • overweight adults (aged 18 years and over)
  • cardiovascular mortality considered preventable in persons aged under 75
  • anxiety

The original data sources included in the interactive tool and the accompanying dataset report across different time periods. We have standardised the different time periods to reflect the same format, for example, calendar years are expressed as "2022", academic years are expressed as "2021/22", specific time periods are expressed as "04/2021 – 03/2022" or as "2018 – 2020". Data for "overweight adults (aged 18 years and over)" and "additions to the housing stock (rate per 1,000 stock)" are in financial years.

Because of methodological differences, data for 23 indicators (two of which not displayed) are included for England only, one indicator (not displayed) is included for England and Wales, and six indicators (three of which are not displayed) are included for Great Britain, rather than for the whole of the UK. We are continuing to work with colleagues in the devolved administrations to improve the comparability of indicators at UK level where possible, as set out in the Government Statistical Service coherence work programme, while acknowledging the devolved nature of some policy areas.

The following six indicators are based on re-weighted Annual Population Survey datasets updated on 16 August 2022. These indicators are: employment rate for 16 to 64 year olds, aged 16 to 64 years level 3 or above qualifications, life satisfaction, feeling life is worthwhile, happiness and anxiety. Read more about the Impact of reweighting on Labour Force Survey key indicators.

Employment rate for 16 to 64 year olds data have been updated to cover the period October 2021 to September 2022 for Great Britain. To ensure comparability, data for Council Areas in Northern Ireland have been omitted from this iteration, as they are not yet available for the same period. Please refer to the NISRA website for 2021 employment rate data for Northern Ireland.

On 31 October 2022, alongside the publication of the latest Personal well-being in the UK estimates for the period between April 2021 to March 2022, previously published estimates for the periods between April 2011 and March 2019 have been updated because of changes in guidance on data suppression, where estimates no longer need to be suppressed solely based on their co-efficient of variation (CV) values. Previously published estimates were suppressed based on their co-efficient of variation (CV) values being over 20. Estimates have also been updated following quality assurance of previous publications.

Persistent absence includes absence where a pupil had tested positive for coronavirus (COVID-19) (national isolation policies for people ill with COVID-19 were still in effect during this period). Consequently, a large proportion of persistent absence and regional variation in persistent absence, is because of differing regional spread of COVID-19 rather than pupil behaviour.

Early years foundation stage profile was revised significantly in September 2021. It is therefore not possible to directly compare 2021/22 assessment outcomes with earlier years. From this iteration of the Subnational indicators explorer, we present the three indicators on children at expected levels by end of early years foundation stage at lower tier local authority level, while previously we presented them at upper tier local authority level. There are some differences between the results broken down by upper tier local authorities (based on the location of the submitting authority) and those by lower tier local authorities (based on the postcode of the school or provider). For more information, please refer to the early years methodology page.

Our interactive tool operates on local authority districts' and unitary authorities’ 2021 boundaries. Where the original data source includes different boundaries, for example counties or boundaries predating 2021, data points for these geographies will be not displayed in our interactive tool but will be available in the accompanying dataset and in the data download.

Data for some indicators are only published for upper tier local authorities (counties and unitary authorities) and not for lower tier local authorities (local authority districts and unitary authorities). For example, 28 indicators will appear in the interactive tool for Fareham, however, the other six will be available for Hampshire in the accompanying dataset and in the data download. These are:

  • pupils at expected standards by end of primary school
  • schools and nursery schools rated good or outstanding
  • persistent absences for all pupils
  • persistent absences for pupils looked after by local authorities
  • female healthy life expectancy
  • male healthy life expectancy

In line with the original data sources, data for Isles of Scilly and City of London are not available for several indicators. Please refer to the original data sources to learn more about the reasons for excluding them.

About this tool

The Subnational indicators explorer, the first step towards an Explore Subnational Statistics service, promotes transparency and makes it easy for users to access and visualise subnational indicators in one place.

The indicators are grouped in three categories ("boosting productivity, pay, jobs and living standards", "spreading opportunity and improving public services" and “restoring a sense of community, local pride and belonging”) in line with the Levelling Up the United Kingdom: missions and metrics Technical Annex.


To position each local authority within the cloud of local authorities, we used a robust measure of statistical dispersion called the median absolute deviation (MAD). We preferred the MAD to the mean absolute deviation as outliers have a smaller effect on the median than they do on the mean.

To compute the MAD for a specific indicator, first calculate the median of all values at local authority level for that indicator. Second, subtract the median from each value and get the absolute values. Finally, calculate the median of the median absolute deviations obtained from the previous step and multiply this by 1.4826. This constant is linked to the assumption of normality of the data.

The distance of each local authority from the centre line (the local authority with the median value in the distribution) is equivalent to the difference between the value of the chosen local authority and the value of the median local authority, divided by the MAD. We consider the resulting score to be positive or negative if the score is at least one MAD above or below the median. Usually, a score is considered to be significantly different from the median score if it is at least two MADs above or below the median.

Where the score of a local authority is more than 7.5 MADs above or below the score of the median local authority, the local authority is shown at the end of the scale and its position is not fully representative of its score.

Last updated on 16 March 2023

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