## 1. Introduction

This article provides a summary of the results of the 2016-based national population projections for the UK and provides additional charts and summary tables illustrating the results of the projections. For discussion of the results see the statistical bulletin.

Included in this report are:

results, which can also be examined using the interactive population pyramids, which allow comparisons of the projected age structure up to mid-2116

comparison with the results of the 2014-based national population projections

estimated and projected total population, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

estimated and projected births and deaths, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

percentage age distribution for the period, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

change in the projected population at 2041 by age and sex compared with the 2014-based projections

This chapter focuses on the principal projection. Discussion of the results of the variant projections can be found in the variants chapter.

Back to table of contents## 2. Summary of results

### Results

The UK population is projected to increase from an estimated 65.6 million in mid-2016 to 72.9 million by mid-2041. Of the projected 7.3 million increase between mid-2016 and mid-2041, approximately 2.8 million (39%) is because of projected natural increase (more births than deaths) while around 4.4 million (61%) is because of net migration.

### Summary results tables

Table 2.1 summarises the projection results by components of change from mid-2016 to mid-2041 for the UK. The equivalent tables for the constituent countries of the UK are found in appendices A to D.

### Table 2.1: Components of change: summary (annual average over period), UK, mid-2016 to mid-2041

Thousands | ||||||

2016 to 2017 | 2017 to 2022 | 2022 to 2027 | 2027 to 2032 | 2032 to 2037 | 2037 to 2041 | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Population at start | 65,648 | 66,051 | 67,961 | 69,533 | 70,881 | 72,035 |

Births | 762 | 774 | 768 | 756 | 759 | 782 |

Deaths | 605 | 598 | 619 | 652 | 693 | 729 |

Natural change | 157 | 176 | 149 | 104 | 66 | 52 |

Migration | 246 | 206 | 165 | 165 | 165 | 165 |

Total change | 403 | 382 | 314 | 269 | 231 | 217 |

Population at end | 66,051 | 67,961 | 69,533 | 70,881 | 72,035 | 72,905 |

Source: Office for National Statistics | ||||||

Notes: | ||||||

1. Figures may not sum because of rounding. | ||||||

2. Years refer to mid-year to mid-year intervals. |

#### Download this table Table 2.1: Components of change: summary (annual average over period), UK, mid-2016 to mid-2041

.xls (18.4 kB)### Charts of summary results

This section presents charts for the UK for the year ending mid-1971 to the year ending mid-2091. The equivalent charts for the constituent countries of the UK are available in the appendices A to D.

Figure 2.1 shows the estimated and projected total population in the UK between mid-1971 and mid-2091. The UK population is projected to continue to rise gradually over the period to mid-2091.

### Figure 2.1: Estimated and projected total population, UK, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

#### Source: Office for National Statistics

#### Download this chart Figure 2.1: Estimated and projected total population, UK, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

Image .csv .xlsFigure 2.2 shows the estimated and projected births and deaths in the UK. The trends seen in the first year of the projection are the result of constraining the projections to the provisional estimates of births and deaths for the year ending mid-2017.

### Figure 2.2: Estimated and projected births and deaths, UK, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

#### Source: Office for National Statistics

#### Download this chart Figure 2.2: Estimated and projected births and deaths, UK, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

Image .csv .xlsFigure 2.3 shows how the age distribution of the UK is projected to change. The median age of the population increases through the projection period.

### Figure 2.3: Percentage age distribution, UK, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

#### Source: Office for National Statistics

#### Download this chart Figure 2.3: Percentage age distribution, UK, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

Image .csv .xls## 3. Comparison with previous projections

### Base population

Overall, the published mid-2016 population estimate for the UK is about 76,000 (0.1%) higher than the 2014-based projection of the population at mid-2016.

### Projected future population

The projected population of the UK at mid-2041 is about 2.0 million (2.6%) lower than in the 2014-based projections. This is because the 2016-based projections assume lower levels of long-term net international migration, a slower rate of increase in life expectancy and a reduction in the long-term assumed number of children born to women compared with the 2014-based projections.

At mid-2041, populations are projected to be lower than in the 2014-based projections for all four countries of the UK. The percentage difference by mid-2041 is greatest for England where the 2016-based projection is 3.0% lower than the 2014-based projections when comparing the principal population projection. For Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, the differences by mid-2041 are 0.1%, 0.4% and 0.1% lower respectively.

Compared with the previous projections, the UK population at mid-2041 is also lower in all broad age groups with the exception of the 60 to 74 group where it is 118,000 higher than the 2014-based projections.

Comparisons with the previous projections (2014-based NPPs) are given in Table 2.2 and illustrated in Figure 2.4

### Table 2.2: Changes in projected population by age compared with 2014-based projections, UK

Mid-2016 | Mid-2021 | Mid-2026 | Mid-2041 | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Age group | Change (thousands) | Percentage change | Change (thousands) | Percentage change | Change (thousands) | Percentage change | Change (thousands) | Percentage change | |

0 to 14 | 47.5 | 0.4 | -30.6 | -0.3 | -221.4 | -1.8 | -578.4 | -4.7 | |

15 to 29 | -26.6 | -0.2 | -105.9 | -0.9 | -131.8 | -1.1 | -411.4 | -3.1 | |

30 to 44 | 30.8 | 0.2 | 6.4 | 0.0 | -144.3 | -1.1 | -501.2 | -3.8 | |

45 to 59 | 28.3 | 0.2 | 73.8 | 0.6 | 107.5 | 0.8 | -69.0 | -0.5 | |

60 to 74 | 10.1 | 0.1 | 17.9 | 0.2 | 33.8 | 0.3 | 117.5 | 1.0 | |

75 and over | -14.5 | -0.3 | -126.8 | -2.1 | -252.3 | -3.4 | -536.6 | -5.2 | |

All ages | 75.6 | 0.1 | -165.1 | -0.2 | -608.5 | -0.9 | -1979.1 | -2.6 | |

Source: Office for National Statistics |

#### Download this table Table 2.2: Changes in projected population by age compared with 2014-based projections, UK

.xls (20.0 kB)

### Figure 2.4: Change in projected population at mid-2041 by age and sex compared with the 2014-based projections, UK

#### Source: Office for National Statistics

##### Notes:

- Where the percentage change is greater than 0, the 2016-based projection is greater than the 2014-based projection.
- Where the percentage change is less than 0, the 2016-based projection is less than the 2014-based projection.

#### Download this chart Figure 2.4: Change in projected population at mid-2041 by age and sex compared with the 2014-based projections, UK

Image .csv .xlsAt mid-2041, populations are projected to be lower than in the 2014-based projections in all broad age groups with the exception of those in their early 50s to early 70s.

The equivalent charts for the constituent countries of the UK can be found in the relevant appendices.

Back to table of contents## 4. Appendix A: England charts

### Figure 2.1a: Estimated and projected total population, England, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

#### Source: Office for National Statistics

#### Download this chart Figure 2.1a: Estimated and projected total population, England, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

Image .csv .xls

### Figure 2.2a: Estimated and projected births and deaths, England, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

#### Source: Office for National Statistics

#### Download this chart Figure 2.2a: Estimated and projected births and deaths, England, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

Image .csv .xls

### Figure 2.3a: Percentage age distribution, England, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

#### Source: Office for National Statistics

#### Download this chart Figure 2.3a: Percentage age distribution, England, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

Image .csv .xls

### Figure 2.4a: Change in projected population at mid-2041 by age and sex compared with the 2014-based projections, England

#### Source: Office for National Statistics

##### Notes:

- Where the percentage change is greater than 0, the 2016-based projection is greater than the 2014-based projection.
- Where the percentage change is less than 0, the 2016-based projection is less than the 2014-based projection.

#### Download this chart Figure 2.4a: Change in projected population at mid-2041 by age and sex compared with the 2014-based projections, England

Image .csv .xls

### Table 2.1a: Components of change: summary (annual average over period), England, mid-2016 to mid-2041

Thousands | ||||||

2016 to 2017 | 2017 to 2022 | 2022 to 2027 | 2027 to 2032 | 2032 to 2037 | 2037 to 2041 | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Population at start | 55,268 | 55,629 | 57,344 | 58,779 | 60,024 | 61,117 |

Births | 653 | 660 | 655 | 645 | 650 | 672 |

Deaths | 498 | 493 | 511 | 540 | 575 | 607 |

Natural change | 154 | 167 | 143 | 106 | 74 | 65 |

Migration | 206 | 176 | 143 | 143 | 144 | 144 |

Total change | 360 | 343 | 287 | 249 | 219 | 209 |

Population at end | 55,629 | 57,344 | 58,779 | 60,024 | 61,117 | 61,952 |

Source: Office for National Statistics | ||||||

Notes: | ||||||

1. Figures may not sum because of rounding. | ||||||

2. Years refer to mid-year to mid-year intervals. |

#### Download this table Table 2.1a: Components of change: summary (annual average over period), England, mid-2016 to mid-2041

.xls (27.1 kB)## 5. Appendix B: Wales charts

### Figure 2.1b: Estimated and projected total population, Wales, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

#### Source: Office for National Statistics

#### Download this chart Figure 2.1b: Estimated and projected total population, Wales, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

Image .csv .xls

### Figure 2.2b: Estimated and projected births and deaths, Wales, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

#### Source: Office for National Statistics

#### Download this chart Figure 2.2b: Estimated and projected births and deaths, Wales, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

Image .csv .xls

### Figure 2.3b: Percentage age distribution, Wales, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

#### Source: Office for National Statistics

#### Download this chart Figure 2.3b: Percentage age distribution, Wales, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

Image .csv .xls

### Figure 2.4b: Change in projected population at mid-2041 by age and sex compared with the 2014-based projections, Wales

#### Source: Office for National Statistics

##### Notes:

- Where the percentage change is greater than 0, the 2016-based projection is greater than the 2014-based projection.
- Where the percentage change is less than 0, the 2016-based projection is less than the 2014-based projection.

#### Download this chart Figure 2.4b: Change in projected population at mid-2041 by age and sex compared with the 2014-based projections, Wales

Image .csv .xls

### Table 2.1b: Components of change: summary (annual average over period), Wales, mid-2016 to mid-2041

Thousands | ||||||

2016 to 2017 | 2017 to 2022 | 2022 to 2027 | 2027 to 2032 | 2032 to 2037 | 2037 to 2041 | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Population at start | 3,113 | 3,126 | 3,182 | 3,218 | 3,242 | 3,252 |

Births | 32 | 34 | 34 | 33 | 33 | 33 |

Deaths | 33 | 32 | 33 | 35 | 36 | 38 |

Natural change | -1 | 1 | 1 | -1 | -4 | -5 |

Migration | 14 | 10 | 6 | 6 | 6 | 6 |

Total change | 13 | 11 | 285 | 5 | 2 | 1 |

Population at end | 3,126 | 3,182 | 3,218 | 3,242 | 3,252 | 3,256 |

Source: Office for National Statistics | ||||||

Notes: | ||||||

1. Figures may not sum because of rounding. | ||||||

2. Years refer to mid-year to mid-year intervals. |

#### Download this table Table 2.1b: Components of change: summary (annual average over period), Wales, mid-2016 to mid-2041

.xls (18.9 kB)## 6. Appendix C: Scotland charts

### Figure 2.1c: Estimated and projected total population, Scotland, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

#### Source: Office for National Statistics

#### Download this chart Figure 2.1c: Estimated and projected total population, Scotland, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

Image .csv .xls

### Figure 2.2c: Estimated and projected births and deaths, Scotland, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

#### Source: Office for National Statistics

#### Download this chart Figure 2.2c: Estimated and projected births and deaths, Scotland, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

Image .csv .xls

### Figure 2.3c: Percentage age distribution, Scotland, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

#### Source: Office for National Statistics

#### Download this chart Figure 2.3c: Percentage age distribution, Scotland, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

Image .csv .xls

### Figure 2.4c: Change in projected population at mid-2041 by age and sex compared with the 2014-based projections, Scotland

#### Source: Office for National Statistics

##### Notes:

#### Download this chart Figure 2.4c: Change in projected population at mid-2041 by age and sex compared with the 2014-based projections, Scotland

Image .csv .xls

### Table 2.1c: Components of change: summary (annual average over period), Scotland, mid-2016 to mid-2041

Thousands | ||||||

2016 to 2017 | 2017 to 2022 | 2022 to 2027 | 2027 to 2032 | 2032 to 2037 | 2037 to 2041 | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Population at start | 5,405 | 5,426 | 5,524 | 5,591 | 5,644 | 5,676 |

Births | 53 | 56 | 57 | 55 | 54 | 55 |

Deaths | 57 | 56 | 58 | 60 | 62 | 65 |

Natural change | -4 | -0 | -1 | -4 | -8 | -10 |

Migration | 25 | 20 | 15 | 15 | 15 | 15 |

Total change | 21 | 20 | 14 | 10 | 6 | 4 |

Population at end | 5,426 | 5,524 | 5,591 | 5,644 | 5,676 | 5,693 |

Source: Office for National Statistics | ||||||

Notes: | ||||||

1. Figures may not sum because of rounding. | ||||||

2. Years refer to mid-year to mid-year intervals. |

#### Download this table Table 2.1c: Components of change: summary (annual average over period), Scotland, mid-2016 to mid-2041

.xls (19.5 kB)## 7. Appendix D: Northern Ireland charts

### Figure 2.1d: Estimated and projected total population, Northern Ireland, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

#### Source: Office for National Statistics

#### Download this chart Figure 2.1d: Estimated and projected total population, Northern Ireland, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

Image .csv .xls

### Figure 2.2d: Estimated and projected births and deaths, Northern Ireland, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

#### Source: Office for National Statistics

#### Download this chart Figure 2.2d: Estimated and projected births and deaths, Northern Ireland, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

Image .csv .xls

### Figure 2.3d: Percentage age distribution, Northern Ireland, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

#### Source: Office for National Statistics

#### Download this chart Figure 2.3d: Percentage age distribution, Northern Ireland, year ending mid-1971 to year ending mid-2091

Image .csv .xls

### Figure 2.4d: Change in projected population at mid-2041 by age and sex compared with the 2014-based projections, Northern Ireland

#### Source: Office for National Statistics

#### Download this chart Figure 2.4d: Change in projected population at mid-2041 by age and sex compared with the 2014-based projections, Northern Ireland

Image .csv .xls

### Table 2.1d: Components of change: summary (annual average over period), Northern Ireland, mid-2016 to mid-2041

Thousands | ||||||

2016 to 2017 | 2017 to 2022 | 2022 to 2027 | 2027 to 2032 | 2032 to 2037 | 2037 to 2041 | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Population at start | 1,862 | 1,871 | 1,912 | 1,946 | 1,971 | 1,990 |

Births | 24 | 23 | 23 | 22 | 22 | 23 |

Deaths | 15 | 16 | 16 | 18 | 19 | 20 |

Natural change | 8 | 8 | 6 | 5 | 3 | 3 |

Migration | 0 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 |

Total change | 9 | 8 | 7 | 5 | 4 | 3 |

Population at end | 1,871 | 1,912 | 1,946 | 1,971 | 1,990 | 2,003 |

Source: Office for National Statistics | ||||||

Notes: | ||||||

1. Figures may not sum because of rounding. | ||||||

2. Years refer to mid-year to mid-year intervals. |