Producer price inflation, UK: July 2022

Changes in the prices of goods bought and sold by UK manufacturers, including price indices of materials and fuels purchased (input prices) and factory gate prices (output prices).

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Contact:
Email Brogan Taylor

Release date:
17 August 2022

Next release:
14 September 2022

1. Main points

  • Producer input prices rose by 22.6% in the year to July 2022, down from a record high of 24.1% in the year to June 2022.

  • Producer output (factory gate) prices rose by 17.1% in the year to July 2022, up from 16.4% in the year to June 2022; this is the highest the rate has been since August 1977.

  • Metals and non-metallic minerals, and food products provided the largest upward contributions to the annual rates of input and output inflation, respectively.

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2. Producer price inflation (PPI) annual growth rates

The headline input index goes back to January 1984 (Figure 1), while the headline output index has been extended back to January 1958 (Figure 1) using previously published data; more information can be found in Section 7: Measuring the data.

The annual rate of input PPI has now been positive for 20 consecutive months. Its growth rate of 22.6% in the year to July 2022 is a decrease of 1.5 percentage points from the record high in June 2022. The annual rate of output PPI increased to 17.1% in the year to July 2022, with the rate now being positive for 19 consecutive months.

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3. Producer price inflation (PPI) input prices

On the month, the rate of input inflation was 0.1% in July 2022, down from 1.8% in June 2022 (Table 1). The monthly rate has slowed for the fourth consecutive month following a record high of 5.0% in March 2022. The last time the rate slowed for four consecutive months was from January 2020 to April 2020, falling from 0.1% to negative 2.0% (Figure 3).

The largest upward contribution to the annual input inflation rate came from metals and non-metallic minerals, which contributed 4.73 percentage points (Figure 4). This product group had an annual price increase of 21.9% in July 2022 (Table 2), which is down from 23.8% in June 2022. This fall in the annual rate for this product group is the result of a fall in the price of domestic steel in primary forms.

The second largest contributor to the annual rate came from crude oil, which contributed 4.59 percentage points (Figure 4) and had an annual price increase of 79.6% in July 2022, down from 96.9% in June 2022. On the month, crude oil is providing a negative contribution owing to a monthly price decrease of 4.8% (Table 2), with both rates being driven by crude petroleum.

The monthly rate of imported inputs inflation fell by 1.9 percentage points, from 2.4% in June 2022 to 0.5% in July 2022. The annual rate also fell, from 21.2% in June 2022 to 20.6% in July 2022 (Table 3). This is the first time the annual rate has fallen this year.

In the year to July 2022, the annual rate of input inflation was 22.6%, this is down 1.5 percentage points from 24.1% in June 2022.

Of the 10 product groups, five showed downward contributions to the change in the annual rate, with crude oil providing the largest, at 0.85 percentage points (Figure 5). Crude oil saw a monthly decrease of 4.8% in price between June and July 2022, compared with an increase of 4.3% in the same period last year.

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4. Producer price inflation (PPI) output prices

On the month, the rate of output inflation was 1.6% in July 2022, up from 1.4 in June 2022 (Table 4). This is the first time the rate has picked up after slowing for the last two months.

Food products provided the largest upward contribution to the output annual rate, at 4.53 percentage points (Figure 6), and had an annual price increase of 14.0% in July 2022 (Table 5). This is the highest the annual rate has been for food products since records began in January 1997 and was mainly driven by preserved meat and meat products for the domestic market.

Despite providing a downward contribution to the annual rate, tobacco and alcohol products increased by 4.0% in the year to July 2022. The downward contribution is driven by the 2022 weight for this product group being lower than its weight in 2021. More information is available in our Chain-linking in business prices article and in Section 7 of this release.

The annual rate of output inflation increased by 0.7 percentage points from 16.4% in June 2022 to 17.1% in July 2022.

Of the 10 product groups, five showed upward contributions to the change in the annual rate, with petroleum products providing the largest, at 0.50 percentage points (Figure 7).

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5. Producer price inflation data

Producer price inflation time series
Dataset | Released 17 August 2022
A comprehensive selection of data on input and output indices. Contains producer price indices of materials and fuels purchased and output of manufacturing industry by broad sector.

Input and output producer price inflation: contributions to the annual rates
Dataset | Released 17 August 2022
Contributions to the annual rates of input and output producer price inflation by component and overall rates.

Producer price inflation
Dataset MM22 | Released 17 August 2022
UK price movement data at all manufacturing, aggregated industry and product group level. Data supplied from individual manufacturers, importers and exporters. Monthly, quarterly and annual data.

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6. Glossary

Weight

This is the importance of the price of interest relative to other prices collected. With annual chain-linking, this is updated every year using business turnover data.

Index value

Price level in a specific basket of goods.

Annual growth rate

The annual inflation rate.

Link factor

A smoothing factor applied to create a continuous series following a weights change.

Contribution

A measure of influence that the index has on the overall growth rate. This depends on both the magnitude of the weight and the inflation rate. A positive contribution is an index that is driving a change in the annual growth rate value. Where the contribution is positive but the growth is negative, this indicates that the index is reducing the annual growth rate (for example, the growth rate would be higher if this index had a lower weight).

Producer price inflation

Changes in the prices of goods bought and sold by UK manufacturers, including price indices of materials and fuels purchased (input prices) and factory gate prices (output prices).

Input prices

The input price measures the price of materials and fuels bought by UK manufacturers for processing. It includes materials and fuels that are both imported or sourced within the domestic market. It is not limited to materials used in the final product but includes what is required by businesses in their normal day-to-day running, such as fuels.

Output prices

The factory gate price (output price) is the amount received by UK producers for the goods that they sell to the domestic market. It includes the margin that businesses make on goods, in addition to costs such as labour, raw materials and energy, as well as interest on loans, site or building maintenance, or rent.

Services producer price inflation

Quarterly estimates monitoring the changes in prices charged for services provided to UK-based customers for a range of industries.

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7. Measuring the data

Producer price inflation (PPI) uses contributions to identify how indices influence the overall inflation rate. This section gives additional information on the calculation and how to interpret it.

Example scenarios

In PPI, the weights usually have greater influence on the contribution as these tend to show greater change than the annual inflation rate. Weight and inflation rate changes most commonly affect the contribution by:

  • decrease in weight and in inflation rate - contribution is negative

  • decrease in weight, increase in inflation rate - contribution is usually negative

  • no change in weight or inflation rate - no change

  • no change in weight, increase in inflation rate - no change

  • increase in weight, decrease in inflation rate - contribution is usually positive

  • increase in weight, no change in inflation rate - contribution is positive

  • increase in weight, increase in inflation rate - contribution is positive

Quality and methodology information (QMI) on strengths, limitations, appropriate uses, and how the data were created is available in our Producer Price Index (PPI) QMI report and our Services Producer Price Indices (SPPI) QMI report.

Other useful documentation for the PPI and the SPPI are:

Extension of back series

This release now sees an extension to these back series by making historical data readily available. PPI data going back to January 1957 have been stored digitally and so this publication sees the release of these index values, linked together and re-referenced to 2015 equals 100, for the headline PPI output series (GB7S).

For headline input (GHIP), this publication includes a back series to January 1984. Unlike the headline output index, the input headline was first introduced in the early 1990s, with the index data starting from 1984, hence the difference in available back series between the two headline indices.

Annual growth rates for the output and input back series are displayed in Figure 1.

The addition of these back series does not affect the methodology used to calculate our previous data to 1973. For the periods January 1957 to December 1972, we have rescaled data from a number of historical rebased series to make these comparable with our previously published data.

Sterling effective exchange rate

The sterling effective exchange rate measures changes in the strength of sterling relative to baskets of other currencies. The sterling effective exchange rate is only indicative of the rates applied to producer prices. This is because the sterling effective exchange rate is a trade-weighted index that represents all UK trade, whereas producer prices reflect transactions in the manufacturing sector.

Economic statistics governance after EU exit

Following the UK's exit from the EU, new governance arrangements are being put in place that will support the adoption and implementation of high-quality standards for UK economic statistics. These governance arrangements will promote international comparability and add to the credibility and independence of the UK's statistical system.

At the centre of this new governance framework will be the new National Statistician’s Committee for Advice on Standards for Economic Statistics (NSCASE) run by the UK Statistics Authority. NSCASE will support the UK by ensuring its processes for influencing and adopting international statistical standards are world leading. The advice NSCASE provides to the National Statistician will span the full range of domains in economic statistics, including the national accounts, fiscal statistics, prices, trade and the balance of payments and labour market statistics.

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8. Strengths and limitations

Strengths

These data:

  • provide users with valuable insight into the changes in the prices of goods and services bought and sold by UK manufacturers

  • are comprehensive, covering many products at a much greater level of detail than other surveys

  • are internationally comparable with any country using the classification by product activity (CPA) or the central product classification (CPC) systems

  • are created using a rotational sampling method to enable many new products and new respondents to be included

  • are chain-linked annually to improve results in deflation by reducing substitution bias

Limitations

  • Some products are produced by only a small number of manufacturers, meaning that there may not be enough manufacturers for a detailed and robust analysis, and the sector may be volatile, requiring some estimation

  • The data can be revised for 12 months

  • The data for the latest two months of the Producer Price Index (PPI) and two quarters of the Services Producer Price Index (SPPI) are provisional

Response rates in July 2022

Response rates for the domestic PPI and Import Price Index (IPI) show a decrease between June and July 2022, whereas the response rate for the Export Price Index (EPI) shows an increase between June and July 2022 (Table 6).

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Contact details for this Statistical bulletin

Brogan Taylor
business.prices@ons.gov.uk
Telephone: +44 1633 456907