In 2016, the two NUTS3 areas of Camden and City of London (£35 billion) and Westminster (£25 billion) contributed almost a quarter (24%) of total Great Britain service exports.
Of the joint authorities outside London, Greater Manchester Combined Authority had the largest service exports in 2016 with almost £7.5 billion; service exports by other joint authorities ranged between £0.9 billion from the Swansea Bay City Region and £6.7 billion from the Edinburgh and South East Scotland City Region.
Financial services were an important category of service exports for the joint authorities, making up more than 18% of service exports in 12 of the 15 joint authorities analysed.
This article breaks down the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) NUTS1 level estimates of exports of services in our previous publication to the smaller NUTS3 geographies1. This article also investigates exports of services by “joint authority” geographies across Great Britain. The 15 joint authorities presented in this article include:
- the seven English Combined Authorities
- Greater London – split into Inner and Outer London
- the Mayoral authority of Sheffield City Region
- the Cardiff Capital Region
- the Swansea Bay City Region
- the Glasgow City Region
- the Aberdeen City Region
- the Edinburgh and South East Scotland City Region
The precise definitions of each of these joint authorities is presented in Appendix B. This publication does not cover geographies in Northern Ireland as data for Northern Ireland currently limit more granular analysis.
The NUTS3 level estimates are aggregates and do not include a “functional category” breakdown, as our previous publications did at the NUTS1 level. At the more granular NUTS3 level, a breakdown by category could potentially reveal confidential information regarding the estimated size of specific companies. In addition, we would expect the margin of error for estimates by category to be larger at this granular level compared with our previous NUTS1 estimates. However, we have included NUTS2 data broken down in eight functional categories. This is fewer than the 13 categories presented at the NUTS1 level as some categories had to be aggregated, again for reasons of confidentiality and reliability. The joint authority data are broken down in the same eight categories.
Our estimates of exports of services at the subnational level are broadly based upon the UK Balance of Payments, which presents the value of both goods and service exports, separately, from the UK to other countries.
Notes for: Introduction
- The Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics (NUTS) is a hierarchical classification of administrative areas, used across the EU for statistical purposes. There are 11 NUTS1 areas in Great Britain, which break down further into 40 NUTS2 areas, which in turn break down into 168 NUTS3 areas.
In July 2016, we published the first estimated values of service exports from the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) NUTS1 level areas of the UK. That publication also explained the methodology used to calculate these experimental statistics and commentary on the initial set of results. The methodology used for this article is the same as used in the original publication, however, here we are analysing 2016 exports of services at smaller geographic levels, to add further insights into the composition of trade.
The methodology merges figures from the International Trade in Services survey (ITIS) with the Inter-Departmental Business Register (IDBR), allowing us to produce estimates for nine industries. Weighted returns from ITIS are allocated to the smallest constituent parts of a business (the “local unit”) by merging with records in the IDBR, which are then summed to calculate the value of exports from each industry from each geographic breakdown. As this publication focuses on smaller geographies, some industries are too small to produce reliable and safe estimates at this level; therefore we aggregated some of the industries together to make four industry-based categories.
The methodology also uses the UK Balance of Payments (the Pink Book), the International Passenger Survey (IPS), the Business Register and Employment Survey (BRES) and parts of ITIS to produce estimates for four product-based categories, namely transport, travel, finance, and insurance and pension services. Broadly we use BRES numbers of employees to break estimates down from NUTS1 to NUTS3 level, with the addition of using IPS data for travel and some ITIS data for finance. This release therefore contains eight “functional categories” in total, four of which are based upon industries and four of which are based upon products. We aim to convert all estimates onto an industry basis in the near future.Back to table of contents
In 2016, total estimated service exports from Great Britain amounted to £251 billion, as presented in our previous publication. In Figure 1 we can see the distribution of exports of services from each NUTS3 area across the whole country. Of the 168 Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) NUTS3 areas in Great Britain, almost half (79) exported less than £0.5 billion of services, and only 26 exported more than £2.0 billion of services. Please note that estimates of service exports at the NUTS3 level are presented in the aggregate only, as disaggregating by category would present both statistical and confidentiality challenges. However, estimates at the NUTS2 level are available disaggregated by category in the downloadable data table in this release.
Figure 1: Total value of exports of services by NUTS3, 2016
Two NUTS3 areas, “Camden and City of London” and “Westminster”, contributed almost a quarter (24%) of total Great Britain service exports between them. In Figure 1 we can see these two areas deviate from the vast majority of NUTS3 areas across Britain. Exports of services from NUTS3 areas in London were more widely distributed in terms of total value than seen in any other region.
Outside London, Berkshire had the highest exports of services of NUTS3 areas, with service exports over £7.7 billion, followed by some of the larger cities including Edinburgh (£5.3 billion), Manchester (£4.6 billion), and Aberdeen City and Aberdeenshire (£4.0 billion).
While the average (mean) value of service exports of all 168 NUTS3 areas in Great Britain was approximately £1.5 billion exports of services, if we exclude London then the average across the remaining 147 NUTS3 areas was £0.9 billion. Six NUTS3 areas exported less than £100 million according to our estimates:
Blackburn with Darwen, and Blackpool (in the North West)
Powys (in Wales)
Na h-Eileanan Siar (Western Isles), Shetland Islands, and the Scottish Borders (in Scotland)
In contrast, only four NUTS3 areas were estimated to have exported more than £10 billion in services:
Camden and City of London (£35 billion)
Westminster (£25 billion)
Tower Hamlets (£12 billion)
Hounslow and Richmond upon Thames (£11 billion).
The NUTS3 breakdown also provides some new insights when looking into the composition of each NUTS1 area. The North West had the fourth highest service exports of the 11 Great Britain NUTS1 areas, with £18 billion, after London, the South East and Scotland. Manchester made up 25% of North West exports, while Liverpool made up 11%. Greater Manchester, which is five NUTS3 areas added together, created 42% of the North West’s service exports. Greater Manchester is therefore an important driver of service exports from the North West. Similarly, in Yorkshire and The Humber, Leeds constituted 36% of service exports, and in Wales, Cardiff and Vale of Glamorgan exported 34% of Welsh service exports. The highest share of a NUTS1 total by a single NUTS3 area was held by Tyneside with 42% of the North East’s service exports. The full list of highest contributing NUTS3 areas within each Great Britain NUTS1 region is presented in Table 1.
|NUTS1 area||NUTS3 area||Value of service exports (£m)||Percentage of NUTS1 area|
|North East||UKC22 Tyneside||1,789||42%|
|North West||UKD33 Manchester||4,616||25%|
|Yorkshire and The Humber||UKE42 Leeds||2,783||36%|
|East Midlands||UKF24 West Northamptonshire||1,000||17%|
|West Midlands||UKG31 Birmingham||2,769||30%|
|East of England||UKH23 Hertfordshire||2,929||21%|
|London||UKI31 Camden and City of London||34,859||30%|
|South East||UKJ11 Berkshire||7,717||20%|
|South West||UKK13 Gloucestershire||2,608||23%|
|Wales||UKL22 Cardiff and Vale of Glamorgan||1,901||34%|
|Scotland||UKM75 City of Edinburgh||5,251||28%|
Download this table Table 1: Largest contributing NUTS3 to service exports from each Great Britain NUTS1, 2016.xls .csv
These estimates remain experimental as development work continues. In the coming months we intend to:
- convert the current functional categories onto a full industry basis
- ensure the service exports are fully consistent with the Pink Book and aligned with HM Revenue and Customs’ (HMRC’s) goods export statistics
- complete work on breakdown of service exports by country of destination
- create estimates of 2017 exports of services using all developments to-date
This continued development of estimates of service exports remains part of the our Devolution programme, and also part of the UK trade development plan. The current aim is to create an ongoing publication containing all the breakdowns and consistencies listed previously before April 2020, with a view to the completed suite of subnational outputs becoming official statistics thereafter. Other developments, including alternative weighting methodologies and analysis of imports, may form part of our analysis but these topics depend upon resourcing and outputs of other programmes.
We welcome feedback from users through the statistical contact for this release, particularly suggestions toward improving the methodology or upon whether this approach meets user needs.Back to table of contents
|Functional category||SIC07 section|
|Information and communications||J|
|Real estate, professional, scientific and technical services||L, M|
|Insurance and pension services¹||-|
|Other||A, B, D, E, F, G, N, O, P, Q, R, S|
Download this table Table 2: Functional categories used in analysis of NUTS3 service exports.xls .csv
|Joint authority||Constituent Local Authorities|
|Aberdeen City Region||Aberdeen, Aberdeenshire|
|Cambridgeshire and Peterborough Combined Authority||Peterborough, Cambridge, East Cambridgeshire, Fenland, Huntingdonshire, South Cambridgeshire|
|Cardiff Capital Region||Blaenau Gwent, Bridgend, Caerphilly, Cardiff, Merthyr Tydfil, Monmouthshire, Newport, Rhondda Cynon Taff, Torfaen, Vale of Glamorgan|
|Edinburgh and South East Scotland City Region||Edinburgh, East Lothian, Mid Lothian, West Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders|
|Glasgow City Region||Glasgow City, North Lanarkshire, South Lanarkshire, East Dunbartonshire, West Dunbartonshire, Renfrewshire, East Renfrewshire, Inverclyde|
|Greater Manchester Combined Authority||Bolton, Bury, Manchester, Oldham, Rochdale, Salford, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, Wigan|
|Liverpool City Region Combined Authority||Knowsley, Liverpool, St. Helens, Sefton, Wirral, Halton|
|North of Tyne Combined Authority||Newcastle-upon-Tyne, North Tyneside, Northumberland|
|Sheffield City Region||Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham, Sheffield|
|Swansea Bay City Region||Carmarthenshire, Neath Port Talbot, Pembrokeshire, Swansea|
|Tees Valley Combined Authority||Hartlepool, Middlesbrough, Redcar and Cleveland, Stockton-on-Tees, Darlington|
|West of England Combined Authority||Bath and North East Somerset, City of Bristol, South Gloucestershire|
|West Midlands Combined Authority||Birmingham, Coventry, Dudley, Sandwell, Solihull, Walsall, Wolverhampton|
|Inner London||Camden, City of London, Hammersmith and Fulham, Kensington and Chelsea, Wandsworth, Westminster, Hackney, Haringey, Islington, Lambeth, Lewisham, Newham, Southwark, Tower Hamlets|
|Outer London||Bromley, Croydon, Kingston upon Thames, Merton, Sutton, Barnet, Brent, Ealing, Harrow, Hillingdon, Hounslow, Richmond upon Thames, Barking and Dagenham, Bexley, Enfield, Greenwich, Havering, Redbridge, Waltham Forest|
Download this table Table 3: Definitions of joint authorities used in exports analysis based upon Local Authority geographies.xls .csv
|Joint authority||Constituent NUTS3 areas|
|Aberdeen City Region||UKM50 (Aberdeen City and Aberdeenshire)|
|Cambridgeshire and Peterborough Combined Authority||UKH11 (East Derbyshire), UKH12 (Cambridgeshire CC)|
|Cardiff Capital Region||UKL15 (Central Valleys), UKL16 (Gwent Valleys), part of UKL17 (local authority Bridgend), UKL21 (Monmouthshire and Newport), UKL22 (Cardiff and Vale of Glamorgan)|
|Edinburgh and South East Scotland City Region||Part of UKM72 (local authority Fife), UKM73 (East Lothian and Mid Lothian), UKM75 (City of Edinburgh), UKM78 (West Lothian), UKM91 (Scottish Borders)|
|Glasgow City Region||Parts of UKM81 (local authorities West Dunbartonshire and East Dunbartonshire), UKM82 (Glasgow City), UKM83 (Inverclyde, East Renfrewshire, Renfrewshire), UKM84 (North Lanarkshire), UKM95 (South Lanarkshire)|
|Greater Manchester Combined Authority||UKD33 (Manchester), UKD34 (Greater Manchester South West), UKD35 (Greater Manchester South East), UKD36 (Greater Manchester North West), UKD37 (Greater Manchester North East)|
|Liverpool City Region Combined Authority||UKD71 (East Merseyside), UKD72 (Liverpool), UKD73 (Sefton), UKD74 (Wirral)|
|North of Tyne Combined Authority||UKC21 (Northumberland), part of UKC22 (local authorities Newcastle upon Tyne and North Tyneside)|
|Sheffield City Region||UKE31 (Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham), UKE32 (Sheffield)|
|Swansea Bay City Region||Parts of UKL14 (local authorities Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire), part of UKL17 (local authority Neath Port Talbot), UKL18 (Swansea)|
|Tees Valley Combined Authority||UKC11 (Hartlepool and Stockton-on-Tees), UKC12 (South Teesside), UKC13 (Darlington)|
|West Midlands Combined Authority||UKG31 (Birmingham), UKG32 (Solihull), UKG33 (Coventry), UKG36 (Dudley), UKG37 (Sandwell), UKG38 (Walsall), UKG39 (Wolverhampton)|
|West of England Combined Authority||UKK11 (Bristol), part of UKK12 (local authorities Bath and North East Somerset and South Gloucestershire)|
|Inner London||UKI31 (Camden and City of London), UKI32 (Westminster), UKI33 (Kensington & Chelsea and Hammersmith & Fulham), UKI34 (Wandsworth), UKI41 (Hackney and Newham), UKI42 (Tower Hamlets), UKI43 (Haringey and Islington), UKI44 (Lewisham and Southwark), UKI45 (Lambeth)|
|Outer London||UKI51 (Bexley and Greenwich), UKI52 (Barking & Dagenham and Havering), UKI53 (Redbridge and Waltham Forest), UKI54 (Enfield), UKI61 (Bromley), UKI62 (Croydon), UKI63 (Merton, Kingston upon Thames and Sutton), UKI71 (Barnet), UKI72 (Brent), UKI73 (Ealing), UKI74 (Harrow and Hillingdon), UKI75 (Hounslow and Richmond upon Thames)|
Download this table Table 4: Definitions of joint authorities used in exports analysis based upon NUTS3 geographies.xls .csv
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