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International Migrants in England and Wales 2011 This product is designated as National Statistics

Released: 11 December 2012 Download PDF

Key points

The current picture of international migrants in England and Wales using 2011 Census data is presented; analyses by country of birth and passports held are reported at national, regional and local levels.

  • Two key variables have been used to define international migrants: country of birth and passports held (to determine nationality).

  • In 2011 13 per cent (7.5 million) of usual residents of England and Wales were born outside the UK; in 2001 this was 9 per cent (4.6 million).

  • The most common non-UK countries of birth for usual residents of England and Wales in 2011 were India, Poland and Pakistan. Poland showed by far the largest percentage increase in the top ten countries of birth, with a nine-fold rise over the last decade and following its accession to the EU in 2004.

  • There were 4.8 million non-UK passports held by usual residents of England and Wales in 2011, accounting for 9 per cent of the resident population. Of these, 2.3 million were EU (non-UK) passports.

  • Around half (3.8 million) of all usual residents of England and Wales on census day who were born outside the UK last arrived in the UK between 2001 and 2011.

  • All regions in England and Wales showed an increase in usual residents born outside the UK between 2001 and 2011; the largest numerical increases were in London and the South East. London had both the largest proportion of usual residents born outside the UK (37 per cent of its resident population) and non-UK nationals (24 per cent of its resident population).

  • Some people born abroad will be UK citizens, either because their parents were UK citizens overseas at the time of their birth, or because they have been granted UK citizenship since arriving.

  • Across England and Wales, the ten local authorities with the highest proportions of both non-UK born and non-UK nationals in their resident population were all London boroughs.

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A podcast explaining this story using audio commentary and graphical animations is available on the ONS YouTube channel at the ONS Youtube channel.

 

Introduction

International migration is an important, though complex, driver of population change. The census is unique in allowing us to obtain a clearer view of different types of migrants and their socio-economic outcomes, down to low geographic levels. New questions on passports held and year of arrival (for those born overseas) were introduced for the 2011 Census, in order to understand better international migration patterns and the characteristics of different groups of international migrants. These new questions provide opportunities for analyses that have not previously been possible.

There is no single way to define and identify an international migrant1. This is also true when considering the usually resident population2 of England and Wales on census day (27 March 2011). Using the 2011 Census there are three ways in which an international migrant can be defined:

  • A person who was born outside the UK3, and therefore has migrated to the UK at some point in the past. However, while some people born abroad4 will have migrated recently, others will have lived in the UK for many years. Moreover, some people born abroad will be UK citizens, either because their parents were UK citizens overseas at the time of their birth, or because they have been granted UK citizenship since arriving.

  • A person who holds a non-UK passport5 (taken to indicate a non-UK national). Again, while some non-UK nationals will have migrated to the UK recently, others will have lived in the UK for many years.

  • A person who was usually resident outside the UK one year prior to census day6, indicating that they have migrated to the UK in the year up to 27 March 2011. This definition therefore excludes any international migrants who arrived in the UK prior to 28 March 2010 and will include some people who are UK-born or UK nationals.

This analysis considers the first two of these definitions, focusing on estimates by country of birth and passports held, using data released on 11 December 2012. In addition, year of arrival7 and age at arrival are also considered for those born overseas. Comparisons are made with earlier census data, where possible, and with other relevant sources. Throughout, the basis for the analyses is the usually resident population of England and Wales; this is referred to in this short story as the resident population of England and Wales.

As more 2011 Census estimates are released8, especially multivariate tables showing two or more variables, more detailed analysis of the characteristics of international migrants will be possible. This will include analyses by age, labour market status, country of birth and other characteristics for usual residents of England and Wales on census day 2011, who reported that they were non-UK born and/or non-UK nationals. This will allow different groups of migrants to be identified by their current activities (for example employment or study) and will also allow for a comparison of the socio-economic outcomes for different groups of migrants. The release of estimates of those who were usually resident outside the UK one year prior to the census will provide a detailed picture of international migration to England and Wales in the year up to census day.

This short story presents findings under the following headings:

  • Country of birth.

  • Year of arrival and age at arrival for the non-UK born usual resident population.

  • Passports held (to determine nationality).

  • Regional geography of non-UK born and non-UK nationals.

  • Local geography of non-UK born and non-UK nationals.

Notes for Introduction

  1. In compiling estimates of Long-Term International Migration (LTIM) flows, the Office for National Statistics uses the UN definition of a long- term international migrant, namely someone who changes his or her usual residence for a period of at least a year, so that the country of destination becomes the country of usual residence. A short-term international migrant is defined as a person who moves to a country other than that of his or her usual residence for a period of at least three months but less than a year (12 months).  Short-term migrants are not part of the usually resident population and are hence excluded from the analyses in this short story. However, the 2011 Census did count short-term residents (those enumerated on census day who were intending to stay in England and Wales for between 3 and 12 months) and visitors (those staying in England and Wales for less than 3 months).  Estimates of short-term residents were published as part of the census release of 16 July 2012.

  2. The usually resident population refers to people who live in the UK for 12 months or more, including those who have been resident for less than 12 months but intend to stay for a total period of 12 months or more. The population base for the 2011 Census was the usually resident population of England and Wales, defined as anyone who, on the night of 27 March 2011, was either (a) resident in England and Wales and who had been resident, or intended to be resident in the UK for a period of 12 months or more, or (b) resident outside the UK but had a permanent England and Wales address and intended to be outside the UK for less than a year.

  3. The terms “foreign born”, “born abroad”, “born overseas”, “born outside the UK” and “non-UK born” are used interchangeably in this document.

  4. Country of birth is derived from census question 9, which asks “What is your country of birth?”  The relevant second release census Key Statistics and Quick Statistics tables are KS204EW and QS203EW.

  5. Passports held is derived from census question 22, which asks “What passports do you hold?” The relevant second release census table is KS205EW. Passports held is used to determine nationality in this analysis. This question should not be confused with census question 15, which deals with national identity (“How would you describe your national identity?”). Whereas passport held (nationality) is an objective measure, national identity is a subjective self-defining measure. In this short story we do not use national identity as it does not indicate a person’s migration status.

  6. Residence outside the UK one year prior to census day is derived from census question 21, which asks “One year ago, what was your usual address?”   Information on people usually resident abroad one year prior to census day will be published as part of the Census third release, see the census prospectus.

  7. Date of last arrival is derived from census question 10, which asks “If you were not born in the United Kingdom, when did you most recently arrive to live here?” (and asks respondents not to count short stays away from the UK).  The relevant second release census table is QS801EW. From this table length of residence is obtained; the relevant second release table is QS803EW. Also derived is age at last arrival; the relevant second release census table is QS802EW. This new question asks about year of last arrival in the UK, excluding short visits. This is open to interpretation and not all respondents may have applied the same definition of a ‘short visit’. Therefore year of last arrival may not necessarily reflect when respondents became UK residents, and this may affect comparison with surveys that use the UN definition of long- term migration as a basis for determining the inflow of long-term migrants.

  8. For the latest information on 2011 Census tables, see the census prospectus.

Country of birth

Country of birth cannot change over time (unlike nationality) and so those born outside the UK1 represent a stable definition of a migrant. It is a measure of ‘foreign-born’ people, but includes some people who were UK citizens at birth even though born abroad (for example, to parents working overseas in the Armed Forces). Additionally many usual residents of England and Wales born outside the UK will have subsequently become UK citizens.

In 2011, 13 per cent of the resident population of England and Wales were born outside the UK. This proportion is compared to the proportion of ‘foreign born’ resident in other European Union (EU) countries in Figure 1. Luxembourg has the highest proportion, with 33 per cent of its resident population being foreign born; England and Wales ranks between Spain and the Republic of Ireland. The entire United Kingdom (UK)2 is also included for comparative purposes. England and Wales had a higher percentage of foreign born residents compared to other EU countries with a population in excess of 50 million (France, Germany, Italy and the UK).

Figure 1: Percentage of usual residents in EU27 countries that are foreign born, 2011

Percentage of usual residents in EU27 countries that are foreign born
Source: Census - Office for National Statistics, Eurostat

Notes:

  1. Figures for Slovakia and Romania relate to 2009; all other Eurostat figures are as at 1 January 2011.

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In 2011 the population of England and Wales was 56.1 million3, an increase of 4.04 million (7.8 per cent) from 2001. The non-UK born population in 2011 was 7.5 million, an increase of 2.9 million (62 per cent) from 4.6 million in 2001. This means that 71 per cent of the overall population growth in the last decade is accounted for by the non-UK born resident population5.

The estimated percentage of the resident population of England and Wales born outside the UK derived from the 2011 Census compares closely with the estimate of 13 per cent obtained from the ONS Annual Population Survey (APS)6 for England and Wales for the same year. The increase in non-UK born residents of England and Wales over the last decade (2.9 million) is higher than the net flow of non-UK born international migrants, according to the Long-Term International Migration (LTIM) estimates (2.6 million) between 2001 and 20107.

In 2011 the top ten non-UK countries of birth, shown in Figure 2, accounted for 45 per cent of the foreign born population of England and Wales. The three largest groups of residents born outside the UK are Indian-born (694 thousand or 1.2 per cent of the resident population in 2011), Polish-born (579 thousand or 1.0 per cent) and Pakistani-born (482 thousand or 0.9 per cent). Poland showed the largest increase in the top ten for those born outside the UK between 2001 and 2011, from 58 thousand (0.1 per cent of the resident population) to 579 thousand (1.0 per cent). This was an increase of 521 thousand (a nine-fold increase) in Polish-born over this decade. Poland joined the EU in May 2004 along with a number of other Central and Eastern European countries. In 2011, after Poland the next highest ranking Accession8 countries were Lithuania (21st) and Romania (26th).

The second largest percentage increase in the top ten for residents born outside the UK was for people born in Nigeria, an increase from 87 thousand (0.2 per cent of the resident population) in 2001 to 191 thousand (0.3 per cent) in 2011. The only country in the top ten non-UK countries of birth to show a decline over the period 2001 to 2011 was the Republic of Ireland. There were nearly 66 thousand fewer Irish-born residents in England and Wales in 2011 compared with 2001 (a fall from 473 thousand to 407 thousand, or a 14 per cent drop). Further analysis of these changes will be possible when other data are made available in Census releases.

Figure 2: Top ten countries for non-UK born residents in England and Wales, 2001 and 2011

Top ten countries for non-UK born residents in England and Wales, 2001 and 2011
Source: Census - Office for National Statistics

Notes:

  1. Those born in Germany include the children of HM Forces who were previously stationed in that country.

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Notes for Country of birth

  1. The terms “foreign born”, “born abroad”, “born overseas”, “born outside the UK” and “non-UK born” are used interchangeably in this document.

  2. These Eurostat figures do not take account of the 2011 Census estimates within the United Kingdom estimates. Also available is Eurostat data for country of birth/foreign-born.

  3. Some numbers and percentages throughout this report may not sum due to rounding

  4. The 2001 mid-year estimate for the usually resident population of England and Wales is 52.4 million, whereas the 2001 Census estimates for population characteristics such as country of birth sum to a total of 52.0 million.

  5. The 2011 Census first release of 16 July 2012 noted that 56 per cent of population increase between 2001 and 2011 was due to migration. However, this is net migration of both UK born and non-UK born.

  6. The Annual Population Survey (APS) is a sample survey primarily used to provide information on the UK labour market. In August 2008 estimates of the size and composition of the UK population by country of birth and nationality for the calendar years 2004 to 2007 were published for the first time. Population by Country of Birth and Nationality Report August 2012 can be found on the ONS website. The APS sample excludes most communal establishments.  APS estimates have not yet been reweighted to population estimates based on the 2011 Census.

  7.  Long-Term International Migration (LTIM) is the most comprehensive estimate of long-term migration. It is based primarily on a subset of the International Passenger Survey (IPS). ONS has published (July 2012) a  reconciliation report (361.9 Kb Pdf) explaining that net international migration to England and Wales over the decade 2001 to 2011 was underestimated compared with the census, particularly for migrants from Accession countries. The report suggests that the International Passenger Survey (IPS) did not measure the full scale of Accession immigration in the middle of the decade, prior to improvements in the survey design being implemented from 2009. An updated reconciliation report entitled 'Methods used to revise the national population estimates for mid-2002 to mid-2010' will be published on 13 December 2012.

  8. Accession countries refer to those nations in Central and Eastern Europe that joined the European Union in May 2004 (Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia) and January 2007 (Bulgaria and Romania). Cyprus and Malta also joined the EU in May 2004.

Year of arrival and age at arrival for the usual resident population born outside the UK

Whereas some people born overseas1 will have recently migrated to the UK, others will have been resident in the UK for many years. A new question on date of most recent arrival2,3 for those born outside the UK was included in the 2011 Census and the results are shown in figure 3. Just over half of all residents of England and Wales born outside the UK most recently arrived during the period 2001 to 2011, and almost 40 per cent had arrived since 2004. The more recent arrivals will not have been affected by mortality and return or onward migration as much as earlier arrivals.

Figure 3: Most recent year of arrival for usual residents of England and Wales born outside the UK, 2011

Most recent year of arrival for usual residents of England and Wales born outside the UK, 2011
Source: Census - Office for National Statistics

Notes:

  1. 2011 Census took place on 27 March. Therefore, data for 2011 only include information to this date.

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Many people who change their country of residence do so for work or study; consequently migration patterns are often skewed towards working ages. Figure 4 presents data for age at most recent arrival3 in the UK for all residents of England and Wales born outside the UK. This figure demonstrates a peak among those aged 15-29 (accounting for 51 per cent of all arrivals); some of these may be the parents of dependent children who have accompanied them, accounting for the smaller peak aged 0-4.

Figure 4: Usual residents of England and Wales born outside the UK by age group at most recent arrival in the UK

Usual residents of England and Wales born outside the UK by age group at most recent arrival in the UK
Source: Census - Office for National Statistics

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Notes for Year of arrival and age at arrival for the usual resident population born outside the UK

  1. The terms “foreign born”, “born abroad”, “born overseas”, “born outside the UK” and “non-UK born” are used interchangeably in this document.

  2. Date of last arrival is derived from census question 10, which asks “If you were not born in the United Kingdom, when did you most recently arrive to live here?” (and asks respondents not to count short stays away from the UK).  See table QS801EW. From this, length of residence is obtained, which is presented in table QS803EW. Also derived is age at last arrival (see table QS802EW). This new question asks about year of last arrival in the UK, excluding short visits. This is open to interpretation and not all respondents may have applied the same definition of a ‘short visit’. Therefore year of last arrival may not necessarily reflect when respondents became UK residents, and this may affect comparison with surveys that use the UN definition of long-term migration as a basis for determining the inflow of long-term migrants.

  3. The census question on date of most recent arrival in the UK was only asked of those not born in the UK.

Passports held (to determine nationality)

While country of birth remains constant, people may change their nationality1,2 over time or acquire dual nationality; accordingly there are differences between the data presented for country of birth and passports held3. The differences between the numbers of residents as measured by non-UK country of birth (7.5 million) and by non-UK passports held (4.8 million) are summarised in table 1.

There are twice as many residents of England and Wales born outside the EU (5.0 million) as there are holding non-EU passports (2.4 million), suggesting that a large proportion of people who were born outside the EU have acquired British citizenship (nationality) and hold a British passport. By contrast, the ratio of non-UK EU born residents (2.4 million) to non-UK EU passport holders (2.3 million) is much lower with 104 born in EU countries (other than the UK) for every 100 holding EU (non-UK) passports. This may be because EU passport holders have rights to free movement and employment in the UK which non-EU nationals do not; thus there may be less need for EU passport holders resident in England and Wales to apply for a UK passport compared to non-EU nationals.

In 2011, over 9 million usual residents of England and Wales reported that they did not hold a passport; many of these will be UK born residents who have never held a passport, or whose UK passport has expired. Those holding UK passports can also hold a foreign passport, giving them dual or multiple nationality. The total number of passports held in 2011 (47.2 million), when added to the number of residents holding no passport (9.5 million), therefore exceeds the total number of usual residents in England & Wales on census day (56.1 million). The difference between the two totals is due to some residents having dual or multiple nationality. More detailed analyses will be possible once multivariate data by both country of birth and passports held are available.

Table 1: Country of birth and passport held for all usual residents of England and Wales, 2011

  Country of birth   Passport held
Number (Thousands) Per cent of all residents   Number (Thousands) Per cent of all residents
EU27 (excluding UK) 2,443 4.4   2,350 4.2
Rest of the world 5,062 9.0   2,438 4.3
All non-UK 7,505 13.4   4,787 8.5
UK 48,571 86.6   42,457 75.7
All passports held   : :   47,244  :
No passport held  : :   9,458 16.9
         
All residents of England and Wales 56,076 :  

Table source: Office for National Statistics

Table notes:

  1. Passports held sum to a higher total than the England and Wales resident population holding a passport owing to dual or multiple nationality.
  2. Country of Birth data for EU27 total population includes numbers for the Republic of Ireland which are excluded from Census 2011 table QS203EW EU countries’  total.
  3. : This symbol represents 'not applicable'.

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Notes for Passports held (to determine nationality)

  1. The terms “passports held”, “nationality”, and “citizenship” are used interchangeably in this document.

  2. Passports held is derived from census question 22, which asks “What passports do you hold?”  (table KS205EW). Passports held is used to determine nationality in this analysis. This question should not be confused with census question 15, which deals with national identity (“How would you describe your national identity?”). Whereas passport held (Nationality) is an objective measure, national identity is a subjective self-defining measure. In this short story we do not use national identity, as it does not indicate a person's migration status.

  3. Some people may hold two or more passports; these may be from non-EU countries, EU countries or a combination of both. Accordingly,  the numbers of passports held by the resident population will exceed the number of passport holders. Further analysis will be possible based on later census releases.

Regional geography of non-UK born and non-UK nationals

The 2011 Census shows that over a third (37 per cent) of London residents were born abroad1 compared to between 5 and 12 per cent in other regions and Wales. Table 2 summarises the proportions of the resident population born outside the UK2 for English regions and Wales, from the censuses of 2001 and 2011. There has been a general increase in the proportion born abroad for all regions over the period 2001-2011; the increase in number is especially notable for London.

Figure 5 shows the regional changes reported between the 1971 and 2011 Censuses, with all English regions and Wales showing increases, especially during the last decade.

Table 2: Distribution of the usual resident population born outside the UK by English region and Wales; 2001 and 2011 censuses

  2001 Census (Thousands) Per cent of all residents 2011 Census (Thousands) Per cent of all residents
North East                  74 2.9                 129 5.0
North West                342 5.1                 577 8.2
Yorkshire and the Humber                261 5.3                 465 8.8
East Midlands                252 6.0                 448 9.9
West Midlands                399 7.6                 630 11.2
East of England                378 7.0                 642 11.0
London             1,943 27.1              2,998 36.7
South East                652 8.2              1,043 12.1
South West                249 5.1                 405 7.7
Wales                  92 3.2                 168 5.5
All non-UK born usual residents             4,643 8.9              7,505 13.4
All usual residents of England and Wales           52,042 :            56,076 :

Table source: Office for National Statistics

Table notes:

  1. : This symbol represents 'not applicable'.

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Figure 5: Distribution of the usual resident population born outside the UK and by English region and Wales; 1971-2011, Census

Distribution of the usual resident population born outside the UK and by English region and Wales; 1971-2011, Census
Source: Census - Office for National Statistics

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Table 3 presents passport held3 data for English regions and Wales, derived from the 2011 Census, compared with estimates from the Labour Force Survey (LFS)4 for 2001. Data show the very high proportion of non-UK passports held in London relative to the rest of the country. It is not possible to compare this data with earlier censuses since this question was only introduced in the 2011 Census. However, when comparing with LFS estimates for 2001, the proportion of non-UK nationals has increased in all English regions and Wales, with the largest overall increases in London, the South East, and the East of England. The exclusion of most communal establishments from the LFS sample, and the slightly different questions asked on nationality/passports held, may further explain some of the differences between the two sources.

Table 3: Distribution of non-UK passports held in the usual resident population by English region and Wales; 2001 LFS and 2011 Census

  2001 LFS (Thousands) Per cent of all residents 2011 Census (Thousands) Per cent of all residents
North East                30                1.2 79               3.0
North West              156                2.3 342               4.8
Yorkshire and the Humber              110                2.2 268               5.1
East Midlands                79                1.9 265               5.8
West Midlands              165                3.2 341               6.1
East of England              179                3.4 449               7.7
London           1,161              16.5 1,971             24.1
South East              283                3.6 706               8.2
South West                91                1.9 259               4.9
Wales                36                1.3 107               3.5
All non-UK passports held           2,291                4.5               4,787               8.5
All usual residents of England and Wales         51,260   :              56,076  :

Table source: Office for National Statistics

Table notes:

  1. The proportion of UK passport holders cannot be derived precisely due to dual and multiple nationality.
  2. The question on passports held was introduced in 2011; there were no earlier census questions on nationality.
  3. : This symbol represents 'not applicable'.

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Notes for Regional geography of non-UK born and non-UK nationals

  1. The terms “passports held”, “nationality”, and “citizenship” are used interchangeably in this document.

  2. Country of birth is derived from census question 9, which asks “What is your country of birth?”. (See tables KS204EW and QS203EW).

  3. Passports held is derived from census question 22, which asks “What passports do you hold?” The relevant second release census table is KS205EW. Passports held is used to determine nationality in this analysis. This question should not be confused with census question 15, which deals with national identity (“How would you describe your national identity?”). Whereas passport held (nationality) is an objective measure, national identity is a subjective self-defining measure. In this short story we do not use national identity, as it does not indicate a person's migration status.

  4. The Labour Force Survey (LFS) is a sample survey primarily used to provide information on the UK labour market.

Local geography of non-UK born and non-UK nationals

Table 4 presents the ten local authority areas with the highest and lowest proportions of residents born outside the UK1. The ten areas with the highest proportions are all in London, while the areas with the lowest proportions are found in Wales and the North East, North West, West Midlands and East Midlands regions of England. The broader geographical distribution of those born outside the UK is summarised in Map 1 for all local authorities in England and Wales. There is a concentration of non-UK born residents in and around London, with smaller concentrations in other areas across the country. When considering the top 20 local authority areas, only one was outside London: Slough (39 per cent).

Table 4: Unitary/local authorities with highest/lowest proportions of non-UK born usual residents from 2011 Census; England and Wales

Highest  Number non-UK born Per cent of usual resident population   Lowest Number non-UK born Per cent of usual resident population 
Brent 171,400 55.1   Blaenau Gwent 1,500 2.2
Newham 165,400 53.7   Redcar and Cleveland  3,000 2.2
Westminster 117,000 53.3   Staffordshire Moorlands 2,200 2.3
Kensington and Chelsea 81,900 51.6   Knowsley 3,400 2.3
Ealing 163,200 48.2   Caerphilly 4,200 2.4
Harrow 107,000 44.8   North East Derbyshire 2,400 2.4
Haringey 113,700 44.6   Cannock Chase 2,400 2.5
Hounslow 109,900 43.3   Neath Port Talbot 3,600 2.6
Tower Hamlets 109,400 43.1   Allerdale 2,600 2.7
Hammersmith and Fulham 78,000 42.8   Torfaen 2,400 2.7

Table source: Office for National Statistics

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Map 1: Non-UK born population as a percentage of all usual residents by local or unitary authority, England and Wales, 2011

Map 1: Non-UK born population as a percentage of all usual residents by local or unitary authority, England and Wales, 2011

Table 5 shows the local authorities with the highest concentrations for the top four non-UK countries of birth in 2011; Nigeria is also included as, after Poland, it had the largest overall percentage increase since 2001 in the top ten foreign countries of birth. In addition to London boroughs, the largest percentages of Indian-born are concentrated in Leicester, Pakistani-born in Slough and Bradford, and Irish-born in Luton. Polish-born residents are concentrated in West London, Slough and in the agricultural area of Boston in Lincolnshire, but the top five local authorities for Polish-born include less than 9 per cent of the total Polish born in England and Wales, suggesting that there is a wider spread of EU migrants across the country. The largest percentages of Nigerian-born are resident in South and East London.

Table 5: Unitary/local authorities with highest proportions of non-UK born usual residents from 2011 Census; England and Wales

Country of birth Local area Number in area Per cent of all residents in area
India Leicester 37,200 11.3
Hounslow 27,300 10.7
Brent 28,500 9.2
Harrow 21,500 9.0
Newham 26,800 8.7
       
Poland Ealing 21,500 6.4
Slough 8,300 5.9
Boston 3,000 4.6
Haringey 10,900 4.3
Hounslow 10,400 4.1
       
Pakistan Slough 11,300 8.0
Bradford 40,300 7.7
Pendle 5,800 6.5
Luton 12,700 6.3
Newham 16,500 5.3
       
Republic of Ireland Brent 8,900 2.9
Islington 5,700 2.8
Hammersmith and Fulham 4,900 2.7
Camden 5,200 2.4
Luton 4,800 2.3
       
Nigeria Greenwich 13,000 5.1
Southwark 13,600 4.7
Barking and Dagenham 8,700 4.7
  Lewisham         9,600 3.5
  Hackney         6,700 2.7

Table source: Office for National Statistics

Table notes:

  1. Numbers rounded to the nearest hundred.

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Table 6 presents data for non-UK passport holders2 resident in local authority areas in England and Wales. The highest ranking areas are again all in London, while the areas with the lowest proportions are again outside London and the South East. Non-UK passport numbers are about equally divided between those from the EU (non-UK) and the rest of the world (see Table 1). Map 2 shows the percentage of residents with EU (non-UK) passports3; there are concentrations of EU (non-UK) nationals in agricultural areas such as Peterborough and Boston, in addition to a range of urban centres concentrated in the South East of England and more broadly across England and Wales. Map 3 shows the percentage of residents with non-EU passports in local authority areas; there are concentrations of non-EU nationals in London and adjacent areas broadly in the South Eastern corner of England. However, there are less pronounced concentrations compared with Map 1 in other urban centres across the rest of England and Wales, such as the older industrial areas of Greater Manchester and the West Midlands, where over time many residents born outside the UK may have obtained UK nationality. Forest Heath in Suffolk is highlighted; it includes a major military base with United States personnel and their families.

More complex analyses of migration data will be possible following publication of multivariate tables in subsequent data releases in 2013, including analysis of migration flow data.

Table 6: Unitary/local authorities with highest/lowest proportions of usual resident non-UK passports held from 2011 Census; England and Wales

Highest  Number of non-UK Passports Per cent of usual resident population with non-UK passports   Lowest Number of non-UK Passports Per cent of usual resident population with non-UK passports
Kensington and Chelsea 69,300 43.7   Redcar and Cleveland  1,400 1.0
Westminster 88,800 40.5   Blaenau Gwent 900 1.3
Newham 107,300 34.8   Caerphilly 2,300 1.3
Hammersmith and Fulham 60,100 33.0   North East Derbyshire 1,300 1.3
Brent 101,800 32.7   Cannock Chase 1,300 1.3
Camden 70,500 32.0   Staffordshire Moorlands 1,300 1.4
City of London 2,300 30.6   Knowsley 2,000 1.4
Ealing 102,300 30.2   South Staffordshire 1,500 1.4
Haringey 74,500 29.2   Neath Port Talbot 1,900 1.4
Lambeth 84,600 27.9   Torfaen 1,300 1.4

Table source: Office for National Statistics

Table notes:

  1. The proportion of UK passport holders cannot be derived precisely from this table due to dual and multiple nationality.

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Map 2: Percentage of all usual residents with EU (non-UK) passport by local or unitary authority; England and Wales, 2011

Map 2: Percentage of all usual residents with EU (non-UK) passport by local or unitary authority; England and Wales, 2011

Map 3: Percentage of all usual residents with non-EU passport by local or unitary authority; England and Wales, 2011

Map 3: Percentage of all usual residents with non-EU passport by local or unitary authority; England and Wales, 2011
 

Notes for Local geography of non-UK born and non-UK nationals

  1. Country of birth is derived from census question 9, which asks “What is your country of birth?”. (See tables KS204EW and QS203EW).

  2. Passports held is derived from census question 22, which asks “What passports do you hold?” The relevant second release census table is KS205EW. Passports held is used to determine nationality in this analysis. This question should not be confused with census question 15, which deals with national identity (“How would you describe your national identity?”). Whereas passport held (nationality) is an objective measure, national identity is a subjective self-defining measure. In this short story we do not use national identity, as it does not indicate a person's migration status.

  3. Data for passports held at local authority level is only available in this release in the broad divisions of EU (non-UK) and non-EU groupings; passports held data for individual nationalities may be available in later releases.

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Background notes

  1. This short story has been prepared in partnership with statistical and research staff from the Home Office.

  2. This publication follows the 2011 Census Population and Household Estimates for England & Wales. The census provides estimates of the characteristics of all people and households in England and Wales on census night. These are produced for a variety of users including government, local and unitary authorities, business and communities. The census provides population statistics from a national to local level. This short story discusses the results for England & Wales.

  3. 2001 Census data are available via the Neighbourhood Statistics website. Relevant table numbers are provided in all download files within this publication.

  4. Interactive data visualisations developed by ONS are also available to aid interpretation of the results.

  5. Future releases from the 2011 Census will include more detail in cross tabulations, and tabulations at other geographies. These include wards, health areas, parliamentary constituencies, postcode sectors and national parks. Further information on future releases is available online in the 2011 Census Prospectus.

  6. ONS has ensured that the data collected meet users' needs via an extensive 2011 Census outputs consultation process in order to ensure that the 2011 Census outputs will be of increased use in the planning of housing, education, health and transport services in future years.

  7. Any reference to local authorities includes both local and unitary authorities.

  8. Figures in this publication may not sum due to rounding.

  9. ONS is responsible for carrying out the census in England and Wales. Simultaneous but separate censuses took place in Scotland and Northern Ireland. These were run by the National Records of Scotland (NRS) and the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA) respectively

  10. A person's place of usual residence is in most cases the address at which they stay the majority of the time. For many people this will be their permanent or family home. If a member of the services did not have a permanent or family address at which they are usually resident, they were recorded as usually resident at their base address.

  11. All key terms used in this publication are explained in the 2011 Census glossary. Information on the 2011 Census Geography Products for England and Wales is also available.

  12. All census population estimates were extensively quality assured, using other national and local sources of information for comparison and review by a series of quality assurance panels. An extensive range of quality assurance, evaluation and methodology papers were published alongside the first release in July 2012 and have been updated in this release, including a Quality and Methodology Information (QMI) document (152.8 Kb Pdf) .

  13. The 2011 Census achieved its overall target response rate of 94 per cent of the usually resident population of England and Wales, and over 80 per cent in all local and unitary authorities. The population estimate for England and Wales of 56.1 million is estimated with 95 per cent confidence to be accurate to within +/- 85,000 (0.15 per cent).

  14. Details of the policy governing the release of new data are available by visiting www.statisticsauthority.gov.uk/assessment/code-of-practice/index.html or from the Media Relations Office email: media.relations@ons.gsi.gov.uk

    These National Statistics are produced to high professional standards and released according to the arrangements approved by the UK Statistics Authority.

Get all the tables for this publication in the data section of this publication .
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