Summary of request

This analysis uses the Longitudinal Study to investigate the outcomes of those who were present, employed, and in the armed forces in England and Wales in the 1991 Census. This is done by looking at the outcomes for these individuals at each Census if they were still present. Essentially we look at two pairs of outcomes: 1991-2001 and 1991-2011. Those who are present in 2011 may not have been present in the 2001 Census.

The Longitudinal Study (LS) contains linked census and life events data for a 1% sample of the population of England and Wales (E&W). Life event data comes from the civil registration system, NHS registration systems and the cancer registries and includes data on: births, immigration, deaths and emigration data. The LS contains records on over 500,000 people usually resident in E&W at each point in time and it is largely representative of the population as a whole. The LS is the largest longitudinal data source in E&W.

The LS has linked records at each census since the 1971 Census, for people born on 1 of 4 selected dates in a calendar year. These 4 dates were used to update the sample at the 1981, 1991, 2001 and 2011 Censuses. New LS members enter the study through birth and immigration.

Longitudinal Study website