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Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and DevelopmentThis product is designated as National Statistics

This release provides estimates of R&D performed and funded by the following four sectors of the economy, as defined in the Frascati manual: Business Enterprise (BERD), Higher Education (HERD), Government (GovERD) which includes Research Councils, and Private Non-Profit (PNP) organisations. All these sectors’ R&D data are known collectively as GERD, which represents the gross domestic expenditure on R&D in the UK.

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These National Statistics are produced to high professional standards and released according to the arrangements approved by the UK Statistics Authority.

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