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Statistical bulletin: 2011 Census: Key Statistics for England and Wales, March 2011 This product is designated as National Statistics

Released: 11 December 2012 Download PDF

Correction

17 January 2014

Correction Notice

2011 Census: Key Statistics for local authorities in England and Wales

A change has been made to the calculation of occupancy rating (bedrooms). In the original version of table KS403EW published on 11 December 2012, all households who reported having no bedrooms were reported as over-occupied (i.e. they had fewer bedrooms than required), but this is not necessarily correct as these are usually one-room households and should have been recorded as having one bedroom.  The updated version of this table has recalculated the occupancy rating, treating these households as if they have one bedroom. The calculation of the average number of bedrooms per household has been similarly changed to be consistent and treat households that recorded zero bedrooms as if they have one bedroom. Figures in the 'Rooms and bedrooms' section of this statistical bulletin included have been updated to take account of this change.

ONS apologises for any inconvenience caused.

Key points

  • The resident population of England and Wales on 27 March 2011 was 56.1 million, a seven per cent (3.7 million) increase since 2001 with 55 per cent (2.1 million) of this increase being due to migration. One in six people were aged 65 or over (16 per cent, 9.2 million).
  • In 2011, four out of every five (81 per cent, 45.5 million) residents of England and Wales described themselves as being in good or very good health.
  • Ten per cent (5.8 million) of residents of England and Wales provided unpaid care for someone with an illness or disability. This was the same percentage as in 2001 (10 per cent, 5.2 million). Over a third (37 per cent, 2.1 million) of these people were giving 20 or more hours care a week, an increase of five percentage points (473,000) on 2001 (32 per cent, 1.7 million).
  • The number of residents who stated that their religion was Christian in 2011 was fewer than in 2001. The size of this group decreased 13 percentage points to 59 per cent (33.2 million) in 2011 from 72 per cent (37.3 million) in 2001. The size of the group who stated that they had no religious affiliation increased by 10 percentage points from 15 per cent (7.7 million) in 2001 to 25 per cent (14.1 million) in 2011.
  • Most residents of England and Wales belonged to the White ethnic group (86 per cent, 48.2 million) in 2011, and the majority of these belonged to the White British group (80 per cent of the total population, 45.1 million). In London in 2011, 45 per cent (3.7 million) out of 8.2 million usual residents were White British.
  • Twelve per cent (2.0 million) of households with at least two people had partners or household members of different ethnic groups in 2011, a three percentage point increase on 2001 (nine per cent, 1.4 million).
  • Of the 13 per cent (7.5 million) of residents of England and Wales on 27 March 2011 who were born outside of the UK, just over half (3.8 million) arrived in the last 10 years.
  • Nearly 4.8 million residents held a non-UK passport that was either an EU passport (2.3 million) or a foreign passport (2.4 million).
  • Sixty four per cent (14.9 million) of households owned their own home in 2011, either with a mortgage or loan, or outright. Home ownership decreased four percentage points since 2001, but more people owned their home outright, an increase of two percentage points from 29 per cent (6.4 million) to 31 per cent (7.2 million). The group that rented from a private landlord or letting agency increased by six percentage points from nine per cent (1.9 million) in 2001 to 15 per cent (3.6 million) in 2011.
  • The number of cars and vans available for use by households in England and Wales increased from 23.9 million to 27.3 million between 2001 and 2011. In 2001 there were on average 11 cars per 10 households whereas in 2011 there were 12 cars per 10 households. The proportion of households with access to no cars or one car declined over the decade whereas the proportion with two or more cars rose. London was the only region where the number of cars and vans was lower than the number of households.
  • In 2011 there were more people with Level 4 or above qualifications, eg Bachelor’s degree (27 per cent, 12.4 million), than people with no qualifications (23 per cent, 10.3 million).

Introduction

This bulletin describes the population of England and Wales based on information collected in the 2011 Census. It captures the defining characteristics of the population, who we are, how we live and what we do. This bulletin is grouped into these three sections.

The census is unique because it is the only information source that measures these characteristics together across the whole population. The outputs are published at national, regional and local authority level and this bulletin provides commentary at national and regional level.

During 2013 ONS will provide this information at geographical levels smaller than the local authority, and then in cross tabulations between characteristics, such as by age or ethnicity. This will provide an even richer and more valuable data source for the many users of the census.

About the census

The census has collected information about the population every 10 years since 1801 (except in 1941). The latest census in England and Wales took place on 27 March 2011.

Census estimates describe the characteristics of areas down to small geographies, and are used to understand similarities and differences in the population’s characteristics locally, regionally and nationally. This information is used for planning and delivering services, for example information about ethnicity is used for equality monitoring, and vehicle ownership is used for transportation and road planning. The census is the only comprehensive source of small area data about the provision of unpaid care and it is used to support policy makers in decision making. Previous releases of census estimates have provided more information about their uses; release on 16 July 2012.

Further information about the census estimates, including details about the methodology used and information about how population subgroups are defined and estimated, is available via the 2011 Census home page.

Personal census information is not shared with any other government department or national, regional or local bodies. The information collected is kept confidential by ONS, and is protected by law. Individual census records are not released for 100 years.

About this release

Estimates from the 2011 Census for England and Wales are being released in stages as soon as ONS can make them available. More information on the planned releases can be found in the 2011 Census prospectus. This bulletin presents key findings from all Key Statistics tables and nine Quick Statistics tables for regions in England and for Wales. UK statistics will be compiled and published after the relevant data becomes available for all four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

This bulletin is about the usually resident population and households. It does not refer to visitors or short-term residents. A usual resident is anyone who, on census day, was in the UK and had stayed or intended to stay in the UK for a period of 12 months or more, or had a permanent UK address and was outside the UK and intended to be outside the UK for less than 12 months.

Some estimates from the 2011 Census have already been published. For example the release on 16 July 2012 provided estimates of the usually resident population by age and sex, population by residence type, household estimates and estimates of numbers of short-term residents. Information on the number of residents with a second address has also been released.

In making comparisons to 2001, the population estimates (by age and sex) have been compared with the mid-year estimates for 2001, 52.4 million for England and Wales. For other characteristics, comparisons are made with 2001 Census estimates, 52.0 million for England and Wales. Footnotes are provided with tables to identify the data sources used.

More detailed analyses of the census estimates are available for some topics via ONS “short stories”. Four of these are published in parallel with this bulletin on the ONS website. Three present analyses of international migration, ethnicity and national identity, and religion. The fourth is a report on how the census labour market statistics differ from those estimated from the Labour Force Survey at the national, regional and local and unitary authority level.

Key and Quick Statistics tables for lower levels of the output area (OA) statistical geography hierarchy and for the ward geography hierarchy will be published on 30 January 2013. Further short stories will be published alongside this release and subsequently, covering families, general health and disability, unpaid care, language, occupation and industry, qualifications and economic activity. 

WHO WE ARE

The information in this section is about the personal characteristics of the usually resident population as estimated by the 2011 Census for England and Wales. It covers our general health, whether we had an illness or disability that limited our day to day activities, our religious beliefs, our ethnicity, our national identity, whether or not we were born in the UK and when we arrived, what passports we held and our language skills.

  • The resident population of England and Wales on 27 March 2011 was 56.1 million, a seven per cent (3.7 million) increase since 2001 with 55 per cent (2.1 million) of this increase being due to migration. One in six people were aged 65 or over (16 per cent, 9.2 million).

  • Four out of every five usual residents of England and Wales described themselves as in very good or good health (81 per cent, 45.5 million).

  • Fifty nine per cent (33.2 million) recorded their religion as Christian and 25 per cent (14.1 million) reported that they had no religious affiliation.

  • Most residents of England and Wales belonged to the White ethnic group (86 per cent, 48.2 million) in 2011, and the majority of these belonged to the White British group (80 per cent of the total population, 45.1 million). In London in 2011, 45 per cent (3.7 million) out of 8.2 million usual residents were White British.

  • Ninety one per cent (51.0 million) usual residents considered themselves to have at least one national identity of English, Welsh, Scottish, Northern Irish, or British.

- Age and sex

On 16 July 2012, the 2011 Census population and household estimates for England and Wales were published. These showed that on 27 March 2011, the population of England and Wales was 56.1 million usual residents; 53.0 million in England and 3.1 million in Wales. There were 27.6 million men and 28.5 million women in the two countries.

The population grew by seven per cent (3.7 million) since 2001, and migration accounted for 55 per cent (2.1 million) of the population increase in England and Wales in the 10 year period, both from within the UK and from abroad.

One in six (16 per cent, 9.2 million), of the population was aged 65 and over. This was an increase of 0.9 million on 2001 (but the same percentage of the usually resident population as in 2001). The population aged over 90 years rose from 0.7 per cent (336,000) in 2001 to 0.8 per cent (429,000). Similarly, six per cent (3.5 million) of the usually resident population in England and Wales were children under five, an increase of 406,000, and the same percentage of the population as in 2001.

There were 23.4 million households in England and Wales, with an average of 2.4 residents per household. All regions of England, and Wales, saw population growth between 2001 and 2011, with the highest growth in London, the East of England and East Midlands.

Information published so far from 2011 Census is available on the ONS website.

- Health

General Health

Usual residents were asked to assess their general state of health on a five point scale: very good, good, fair, bad or very bad. The majority, 81 per cent (45.5 million), described themselves as being in good or very good health, as shown in Figure 1. A further 13 per cent (7.4 million) described their health as fair, and the remaining six per cent (3.1 million) described their health as bad or very bad.

This was not a new question in 2011 but its structure has changed. In 2001 it was based on a three point scale: good, fairly good or not good. The findings are therefore not directly comparable. For example, some people recording their health as ‘fair’ in 2011 might have said ‘fairly good’ using a 2001 scale but some might have said ‘not good’. An analysis of estimates relating to health and care will be published on 30 January 2013. This story will compare general health data with 2001 by applying weights to the response categories (275.3 Kb Pdf) .

Figure 1: General health

England and Wales, 2011, All usual residents

General health
Source: Census - Office for National Statistics

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Regionally London had the highest percentage of usual residents describing their health as very good; 50 per cent (4.1 million). The North East had the lowest figures; 44 per cent (1.1 million).

Wales and the North East of England had the highest percentages of usual residents reporting bad or very bad health; eight per cent (234,000) and seven per cent (193,000) respectively. The South East had the smallest percentage of residents reporting to be in either bad or very bad health, four per cent (375,000).

Information on health is provided in table KS301EW (403.5 Kb Excel sheet) .

Long-term activity-limiting illness

In 2011, those reporting a long term health problem or disability (including those related to age) that limited their day-to-day activities and that had lasted, or was expected to last, at least 12 months, were asked to assess whether their daily activities were limited a lot, a little or not at all by such a health problem. The 2011 estimates are in Table 1.

In 2001 the long term activity limiting illness response categories were yes and no. To compare 2001 and 2011, the 2011 results for 'Yes, limited a lot' and 'Yes, limited a little' must be amalgamated into a single 'Yes' response. On this basis, the percentage of people in England and Wales with a long-term activity-limiting illness has changed little - 18 per cent (10.0 million) in 2011, compared to 18 per cent (9.5 million) in 2001.

Table 1: Level of activity limited by long-term health problem or disability by age bands

England and Wales, 2001 and 2011, all usual residents

Thousands, per cent
Year Age Limited1 Not limited
Number Per cent Number Per cent
2001 Working age2 4,333 14 27,619 86
All ages 9,485 18 42,557 82
2011 16 to 64 4,706 13 31,568 87
  All ages 10,048 18 46,027 82

Table source: Office for National Statistics

Table notes:

  1. 2011 Census estimates for 'limited a little' and 'limited a lot' have been aggregated in order to allow comparison with 2001 Census estimates.
  2. Working age is defined as 16 to 64 inclusive for males and 16 to 59 inclusive for females.

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Wales had a higher percentage of residents with a long-term illness, 23 per cent (696,000), than any England region. This was also true in 2001 when 23 per cent (676,000) of usual residents had a long-term activity-limiting illness. The North East reported 22 per cent (562,000) of residents with a long-term illness.

London had the largest increase in the percentage of residents without a long-term activity-limiting illness, going from 85 per cent (6.1 million) in 2001 to 86 per cent (7.0 million) in 2011 and showing an opposite trend to other regions ie the East and West Midlands, the East of England and the South East and South West.

Information on long term activity limiting health problems is provided in table KS301EW (403.5 Kb Excel sheet) .

- Religion

The question on religious affiliation in the census was introduced in 2001 and is voluntary. The order of the main religion groups by size did not change between 2001 and 2011. Those affiliated with the Christian religion remained the largest group; 59 per cent (33.2 million) of usual residents in England and Wales.

This is a decrease of 13 percentage points since 2001 when 72 per cent (37.3 million) of usual residents stated their religion as Christian. It is the only group to have experienced a decrease in numbers between 2001 and 2011 despite population growth.

The second largest response category in 2011 was no religion. This increased 10 percentage points from 15 per cent (7.7 million) of usual residents in 2001, to 25 per cent (14.1 million) in 2011.

The next most stated religion in England and Wales was Muslim with five per cent (2.7 million) of usual residents stating their religion as Muslim in the 2011 Census; an increase of two percentage points since 2001 when three per cent (1.5 million) of usual residents stated that they were Muslim.

The percentages reporting other religions are in Table 2.

Table 2: Religion

England and Wales, 2001 and 2011, all usual residents

Thousand, per cent
Religion 2001 2011 Change
Number Per cent Number Per cent Number Percentage point
Christian  37,338 71.7 33,243 59.3 -4,095 -12.4
No religion 7,709 14.8 14,097 25.1 6,388 10.3
Muslim 1,547 3.0 2,706 4.8 1,159 1.8
Hindu 552 1.1 817 1.5 264 0.4
Sikh 329 0.6 423 0.8 94 0.2
Jewish 260 0.5 263 0.5 3 0.0
Buddhist 144 0.3 248 0.4 103 0.1
Other religion 151 0.3 241 0.4 90 0.1
Religion not stated 4,011 7.7 4,038 7.2 27 -0.5

Table source: Office for National Statistics

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Between 2001 and 2011 the percentage of residents affiliating themselves with the Christian religion declined in all England regions and Wales.

The highest percentage, 68 per cent (1.8 million) of people who responded that their religion was Christian was in the North East. This represents a 12 percentage point decrease on 2001, when this region also had the highest percentage of people who stated that their religion was Christian. London had the lowest percentage of usual residents stating their religion as Christian in both 2011 (48 per cent, 4.0 million) and 2001 (58 per cent, 4.2 million).

London had the highest percentage of all other religious affiliations except Sikh; Muslim (12 per cent, 1.0 million), Hindu (five per cent, 411,000), Jewish (two per cent, 149,000), Buddhist (one per cent, 82,000), and other religion (less than one per cent, 48,000). The West Midlands had the highest percentage of people who responded that their religion was Sikh (two per cent, 30,000).

London also had the highest percentage of usual residents who did not state a religion in 2011 – eight per cent (693,000) did not answer.

Figure 2 shows that the percentage of residents reporting no religion has increased since 2001 for all England regions and Wales. In Wales, nearly a third (32 per cent, 983,000) of residents stated they had no religion, higher than the England regions and a 14 percentage point increase on 2001.

Figure 2: Usual residents responding that they had no religious affiliation

England regions, Wales, 2001 and 2011, All usual residents

Usual residents responding that they had no religious affiliation
Source: Census - Office for National Statistics

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Information on religion is provided in tables KS209EW (269.5 Kb Excel sheet) and QS210EW (628.5 Kb Excel sheet) .

Further discussion of estimates relating to the religions of usual residents in England and Wales is available via a short story published as part of this release.

- Ethnic group

Most usual residents of England and Wales belonged to the White ethnic group (86 per cent, 48.2 million) in 2011, a decrease of five percentage points since 2001 (91 per cent, 47.5 million). The majority of these belonged to the White British group (80 per cent of the total population, 45.1 million).

Figure 3: Ethnic group of usually resident population

England and Wales, 2011, All usual residents

Ethnic group of usually resident population
Source: Census - Office for National Statistics

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Figure 4 shows that Wales had the largest percentage of people of White ethnic group in 2011, 96 per cent (2.9 million). In London in 2011, 45 per cent (3.7 million) out of 8.2 million usual residents were White British.

Figure 4: Ethnic group

England regions, Wales, 2011, All usual residents

Ethnic group
Source: Census - Office for National Statistics

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Information on ethnic group is provided in tables KS201EW (335 Kb Excel sheet)  and  QS202EW (242.5 Kb Excel sheet) .

Ethnic groups within households

There has been a rise in the percentage of households containing usual residents of more than one ethnic group. This includes, for example, households where partners or members of different generations are of different ethnic groups.

The percentage of households containing two people or more is the same in 2011 (70 per cent, 16.3 million) as it was in 2001 (70 per cent, 15.2 million), but the percentage of households that contain members of different ethnic groups has increased.

In England and Wales in 2011, 12 per cent (2.0 million) of all households with at least two people had members from different ethnic groups. This was an increase of three percentage points on 2001 (nine per cent, 1.4 million).

This varies by region as can be seen in Figure 5.

Figure 5: Households containing usual residents from multiple ethnic groups

England regions, Wales, 2001 and 2011, All households with two or more usual residents

Households containing usual residents from multiple ethnic groups
Source: Census - Office for National Statistics

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Changes between 2001 and 2011 could be a result of migration, either within or from outside the UK, including young adults attending university, and mortality.

Further discussion of estimates relating to the ethnic groups of usual residents is available via a short story published as part of this release.

National identity

The 2011 Census collected data on national identity for the first time. In later releases of census statistics, when cross tabulations become available, it will be possible to see more information about the relationship between national identity and other topics, for example ethnicity and country of birth.

Individuals could identify themselves on the census questionnaire as having more than one national identity; for example a person could record that they had both English and British national identity. In England and Wales, most usual residents (91 per cent, 51.0 million) reported at least one national identity of English, Welsh, Scottish, Northern Irish, or British.

Information on national identity is provided in table KS202EW (553.5 Kb Excel sheet) .

- Usual residents born outside the UK

Eighty seven per cent (48.6 million) of the population of England and Wales was UK born, a rise of 1.2 million people since 2001 but a decline of four percentage points from 91 per cent (47.4 million) of the population.

In 2011, 13 per cent (7.5 million) of usual residents reported a country of birth outside the UK. This is an increase of four percentage points since 2001 (nine per cent, 4.6 million).

At the regional level, Figure 6 shows that the percentage of the usually resident population of all England regions and Wales that was foreign born rose between 2001 and 2011, and that the relative distributions across the regions remained the same. In both 2001 and 2011 London had the largest percentage of foreign born residents; increasing 10 percentage points from 27 per cent (1.9 million) of usual residents being foreign born in 2001 to 37 per cent (3.0 million) in 2011. Hence in London in 2011, more than one in three usual residents was non-UK born, whereas in the North East, where the smallest percentage (five per cent, 129,000) of the population was foreign born, the ratio was one in 20.

Figure 6: Foreign born usual residents

England regions, Wales, 2001 and 2011, All usual residents

Foreign born usual residents
Source: Census - Office for National Statistics

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Age and year of arrival

The 2011 Census was the first to ask for information on the age and year of most recent1 arrival of foreign born usual residents. Sixty eight per cent (5.1 million) of foreign born usual residents were between the ages of 15 and 44 when they arrived, and 27 per cent (2.0 million) arrived when they were aged 14 or younger.

Of the 13 per cent (7.5 million) of residents in England and Wales in 2011 who were not born in the UK, just over half (3.8 million) arrived between 2001 and 2011, as can be seen in Figure 7. This relates to higher levels of migration seen over the last decade due in part due to the accession of 10 countries into the EU in 2004. Between 2004 and 2006, 15 per cent (1.2 million) of non UK born usual residents arrived in England and Wales, and 16 per cent (1.2 million) arrived between 2007 and 2009. This compares with 17 per cent (1.2 million) in the decade 1991 to 2000. Foreign born usual residents who arrived prior to 2001 will have decreased as a proportion of the total, due to mortality, onward migration or return to country of origin.

Figure 7: Most recent year of arrival

England and Wales, 2011, All non-UK born usual residents

Most recent year of arrival
Source: Census - Office for National Statistics

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Information on age and year of arrival is provided in tables QS802EW (331 Kb Excel sheet) and QS801EW (295.5 Kb Excel sheet) .

Country of birth

The most reported countries of birth of foreign born usual residents changed over the 10 years since 2001. Table 3 shows the differences.

Table 3: Most reported countries of birth of non-UK born usual residents

England and Wales, 2001 and 2011, all non-UK born usual residents

Thousands, per cent
  2001   2011
   Country1 Number Per cent   Country Number  Per cent
1 Republic of Ireland 473 10   India 694 9
2 India 456 10   Poland 579 8
3 Pakistan 308 7   Pakistan 482 6
4 Germany 244 5   Ireland 407 5
5 Bangladesh 153 3   Germany 274 4
6 Jamaica 146 3   Bangladesh 212 3
7 United States of America 144 3   Nigeria 191 3
8 South Africa 132 3   South Africa 191 3
9 Kenya 127 3   United States 177 2
10 Italy 102 2   Jamaica 160 2

Table source: Office for National Statistics

Table notes:

  1. Data are not published for all countries. 

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The three most reported countries of birth in 2011 (India, Poland and Pakistan) each had greater numbers of usual residents than the most reported country of birth in 2001 (Ireland). In addition the 10 most reported countries of birth in 2011 all had greater numbers of usual residents than the country of equivalent rank in 2001.

The estimate of usual residents in England and Wales who were born in Poland rose by six percentage points from one per cent (58,000) in 2001 to seven per cent (579,000) in 2011.

Further discussion of estimates relating to foreign born usual residents is available via a short story published as part of this release.

Information on countries of birth is provided in tables KS204EW (286.5 Kb Excel sheet) and QS203EW (782 Kb Excel sheet) .

Passports held

The 2011 Census collected information for the first time on passports held. This can be an indicator of nationality. Eighty three per cent (46.6 million) of usual residents had at least one passport and 17 per cent (9.5 million) usual residents did not have a passport. Passports held across the regions of England, and Wales are shown in Figure 82.

The number of residents who held a passport that was not a UK passport was nearly 4.8 million. Of these 2.3 million were EU passports (other than UK) and 2.4 million were other foreign passports.

Subsequent releases from 2011 Census will include cross tabulations of passports held and country of birth, which together are a more complete indicator of migration status since, for example, British citizens can be born abroad and other people living in the UK who were born abroad can acquire British citizenship.

Figure 8: Passports held

England regions, Wales, 2011, All usual residents

Passports held
Source: Census - Office for National Statistics

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The highest reported levels of passports held were in London, with 92 per cent (7.5 million) of usual residents holding at least one passport. This compares to Wales where 78 per cent (2.4 million) of usual residents held at least one passport. London was also the region with the highest percentage holding a non-UK passport (24 per cent, 2.0 million).

Information on passports held is provided in table KS205EW (357.5 Kb Excel sheet)

Notes for - Usual residents born outside the UK

  1. The 2011 Census asked individuals to state the date of most recent arrival as some usual residents may have migrated to the UK more than once.

  2. Usual residents in the 'UK passport' category may also hold one or more non-UK passports. Usual residents in the 'Other passport' category do not hold a UK passport but may hold more than one non-UK passport.

- Household language

The 2011 Census collected information for the first time on main language and English language skills.

In 2011, all usual residents in 91 per cent (21.3 million) of households spoke English as a main language. In a further four per cent (868,000) of households at least one adult spoke English as a main language and in one per cent (182,000) of households no adults but at least one child spoke English as a main language. In the remaining four per cent (1.0 million) of households there were no residents who had English as a main language.

People who did not report English1 as a main language may be fluent English speakers and were able to report their English language proficiency as ‘good’ or ‘very good’.

Subsequent releases from 2011 Census will include cross tabulations of main language by proficiency in English.

Households where one or more usual residents do not speak English as a main language are not evenly distributed across the regions, as shown in Figure 9. London had the highest percentage; 26 per cent (848,000) of households contained a usual resident whose main language was not English. The North East had the lowest percentage; three per cent (36,000) of households containing a usual resident whose main language was not English. This distribution is similar to that seen for foreign born usual residents.

Figure 9: Households where not all usual residents have English (or Welsh in Wales) as a main language

England regions, Wales, 2011, All households

Households where not all usual residents have English (or Welsh in Wales) as a main language
Source: Census - Office for National Statistics

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Information on household language is provided in table KS206EW (268 Kb Excel sheet) .

Notes for - Household language

  1. English or Welsh in Wales.

HOW WE LIVE

This section covers the usually resident population that lived in households, and presents the type of accommodation we lived in and whether it was owned or rented, how many rooms we had, whether we had central heating and the number of cars and vans that we had access to. It then covers who we lived with within households and what our marital status was. Finally it presents summary estimates of the proportion of the population that lived in a communal establishment.

  • Sixty four per cent (14.9 million) of households owned their own home in 2011, either with a mortgage or loan, or outright. Home ownership decreased four percentage points since 2001, but more people owned their home outright, an increase of two percentage points from 29 per cent (6.0 million) to 31 per cent (7.2 million). The proportion that rented from a private landlord or letting agency increased by six percentage points  from nine per cent (1.8 million) to 15 per cent (3.6 million).  

  • London was the only region where the number of cars and vans was lower than the number of households.

  • Married, civil partnered, and one person households accounted for 63 per cent (14.8 million) of all households.

  • Nearly two per cent (1.0 million) of residents of England and Wales lived in communal establishments.

- Accommodation and tenure

Accommodation type

In general, as can be seen in Figure 10, the relative proportions of accommodation types remained the same between 2001 and 2011 although the percentage of households living in purpose-built flats, maisonettes or apartments in a block of flats or tenements rose by two percentage points from 14 per cent (3.1 million) households in 2001 to 16 per cent (4.0 million) in 2011.

Figure 10: Accommodation type

England and Wales, 2001 and 2011, All households

Accommodation type
Source: Census - Office for National Statistics

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The England regions and Wales showed similar percentages of households residing in the different types of accommodation, with the exception of London which had the smallest percentage (48 per cent, 1.6 million) of households residing in whole houses or bungalows. The percentage of households residing in terraced houses varies from 21 per cent (407,000) in the East Midlands to 30 per cent (359,000) in the North East. Accommodation type in the England regions and Wales is shown in Figure 11.

Figure 11: Accommodation type

England regions, Wales, 2011, All Households

Accommodation type
Source: Census - Office for National Statistics

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Information on accommodation type is provided in table KS401EW (304.5 Kb Excel sheet) .

Tenure

Type of tenure refers to whether the household owned or rented their accommodation. Table 4 compares the percentage of households with different tenure types in 2011 and 2001. The four most frequently reported tenure types for households in 2011 were owned with a mortgage or loan at 33 per cent (7.6 million), followed by owned outright at 31 per cent (7.2 million), renting from a private landlord or letting agency at 15 per cent (3.6 million) and then renting from the council at nine per cent (2.2 million).

Ownership with a mortgage or loan decreased six percentage points from 39 per cent (8.4 million) in 2001 to 33 per cent (7.6 million) in 2011, while ownership outright increased by two percentage points from 29 per cent (6.4 million) in 2001 to 31 per cent (7.2 million) in 2011.

Renting from the council decreased four percentage points from 13 per cent (2.9 million) in 2001 to nine per cent (2.2 million) in 2011. Renting from a private landlord or letting agency increased six percentage points from nine per cent (1.9 million) in 2001 to 15 per cent (3.6 million) in 2011. The decline in rental from the council reflects in part the policy of transferral of housing stock from councils to housing associations.

Table 4: Tenure

England and Wales, 2001 and 2011, all households

Thousands, per cent
Tenure   2001 2011 Change
Number Per cent Number Per cent Number Percentage point
Owned Owned outright 6,381 29 7,207 31 826 1
Owned with a mortgage or loan 8,396 39 7,647 33 -749 -6
Shared ownership  140 1 178 1 39 0
Social rented Rented from council (local authority) 2,869 13 2,208 9 -660 -4
Other 1,289 6 1,910 8 622 2
Private rented Private landlord or letting agency 1,889 9 3,566 15 1678 7
  Other (including living rent free1) 698 3 649 3 -49 0

Table source: Office for National Statistics

Table notes:

  1. The 2011 Census provides separate estimates for those 'Living rent free' however this category has been grouped with 'Private rented: Other' in this table to allow comparison with 2001 Census estimates.

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The England and Wales distribution of tenure types in 2011 was the same for all regions except London, the South West and Wales.

In Wales and the South West more households were owned outright than with a mortgage or loan. This is likely to be linked to the relatively older populations of these areas. In London, owned with a mortgage or loan is the largest category (27 per cent, 886,000), followed by private rental from a landlord or letting agency (24 per cent, 776,000).

Information on tenure is provided in table KS402EW (270 Kb Excel sheet) .

- Rooms, bedrooms and central heating

Rooms and bedrooms

In England and Wales in 2011 there was an average of 5.4 rooms per household, an increase of 0.1 on the estimate of 5.3 in 2001.

This ranged from 4.7 in London, the only region with an average of less than 5.3 rooms, to 5.6 in the East Midlands, East of England, South East and South West. Wales had the highest average number of rooms per household, 5.7.

2011 Census asked about the number of bedrooms in households for the first time. The average number of bedrooms per household in England and Wales was 2.7. There was little variation across England and Wales, with London reporting the lowest average, 2.5 bedrooms per household, all other England regions with an average of either 2.7 or 2.8, and Wales with an average of 2.9.

The occupancy ratings of rooms and bedrooms are indicators of deprivation and overcrowding in a household. An occupancy rating of -1 implies that there is one room too few for the number of people living in the household. In 2011 nine per cent (2.0 million) of households in England and Wales had an occupancy rating of -1 or less for rooms. This is an increase of two percentage points on 2001, when seven per cent (1.5 million) of households in England and Wales had an occupancy rating of -1 or less for rooms. Five per cent (1.1 million) had an occupancy rating of -1 or less for bedrooms1.

London had the highest percentages of households with occupancy ratings of -1 or less for rooms and bedrooms, 22 per cent (707,000) and 11 per cent (371,000) respectively. Other than the North East region (five per cent, 57,000), Wales had the lowest percentage of households with occupancy ratings of -1 or less for rooms, and other than the South West (three per cent, 62,000), Wales and the North East had the lowest percentage of households with occupancy ratings of -1 or less for bedrooms.

Information on rooms and bedrooms is provided in table KS403EW (282.5 Kb Excel sheet) .

Central heating

Nearly all households in England and Wales in 2011 reported that they had central heating (97 per cent, 22.7 million). In 2001, this was five percentage points lower at 92 per cent (19.8 million). Houses built in the intervening 10 years may have had central heating as a standard feature.

Information on central heating is provided in table KS403EW (282.5 Kb Excel sheet) .

Notes for - Rooms, bedrooms and central heating

  1. The use of bedrooms as an indicator of overcrowding was introduced in the Housing (Overcrowding) Bill 46 (2003). The definition of the bedroom standard refers to uninhabitable bedrooms and rooms with less than 50ft2 floor space. The census does not collect this information and it is not used in deriving 2011 Census bedroom occupancy ratings. The derivation of bedroom occupancy rating takes into account circumstances where people may share bedrooms eg married couples.

- Car or van availability

The number of cars and vans available to households in England and Wales increased from 23.9 million in 2001 to 27.3 million in 2011. The increase of 3.4 million cars and vans is similar to the overall increase in the usually resident population (3.7 million) over the same period. In 2001 there were on average 11 cars per 10 households whereas in 2011 there were 12 cars per 10 households.

In London there was a decrease of 0.1 cars or vans available per household. The percentage of households with no cars or vans increased from 37 per cent (1.1 million) in 2001 to 42 per cent (1.4 million) in 2011.

Figure 12 shows that London was the only region in 2011 with fewer cars and vans (2.7 million) than households (3.3 million); in 2001 the North East also had fewer cars and vans than households.  The lower numbers of cars and vans in London may be related to factors such as high population densities and extensive public transport facilities.

Figure 12: Average number of cars or vans per household

England regions, Wales, 2001 and 2011, All cars and vans, All households

Average number of cars or vans per household
Source: Census - Office for National Statistics

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Figure 13 shows that the percentage of households with access to two, three, or four or more cars or vans increased whilst the number with none or one decreased. This is expected given the overall increase in cars and vans per household. 2011 Census cross tabulations that are being published subsequently, may help to explain the increase in cars or vans available to households, eg people in households by age, will be published in 2013.

Figure 13: Cars or vans

England and Wales, 2001 and 2011, All households

Cars or vans
Source: Census - Office for National Statistics

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Information on car or van availability is provided in table KS404EW (249.5 Kb Excel sheet) .

- Marital status

Table 5 shows that in 2011, as in 2001, the largest marital status group was those people who were married, at 47 per cent (21.2 million). This was a decrease of four percentage points from the 2001 estimate of 51 per cent (21.2 million). Civil partnerships, as a new legal partnership status1, were a small proportion of the total – less than one per cent (105,000). The percentage of single (never married) people increased five percentage points from 30 per cent (12.5 million) in 2001 to 35 per cent (15.7 million) in 2011. The remainder of the usually resident population in 2011 was composed of divorced (nine per cent, 4.1 million), widowed (seven per cent, 3.2 million), and separated (three per cent, 1.2 million) individuals from either opposite or same sex relationships.

The percentage of usual residents that were married declined by between four and six percentage points in Wales and all England regions except London, where it fell by two percentage points.

The percentage of people married in London in 2011 was five percentage points lower (40 per cent, 2.6 million) than the region with the next lowest estimates, the North West (45 per cent, 2.6 million). In 2001, the percentage of usual residents married in London (42 per cent, 2.4 million) was eight percentage points less than the North West (50 per cent, 2.7 million).

Table 5: Marital status

England and Wales, 2001 and 2011, usual residents aged 16 and over

Thousands, per cent
Marital status 2001 2011
Number Per cent Number Per cent
Married 21,158 50.9 21,197 46.6
Single (never married or never registered a same-sex civil partnership) 12,511 30.1 15,730 34.6
Divorced or formerly in a same-sex civil partnership which is now legally dissolved 3,421 8.2 4,099 9.0
Widowed or surviving partner from a same-sex civil partnership 3,477 8.4 3,170 7.0
Separated (but still legally married or still legally in a same-sex civil partnership) 986 2.4 1,196 2.6
In a registered same-sex civil partnership1 n/a n/a 105 0.2

Table source: Office for National Statistics

Table notes:

  1. The 2011 Census collected information on civil partnerships for the first time, reflecting the fact that the Civil Partnership Act 2004 came into effect in the UK on 5 December 2005.

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Information on marital and civil partnership status is provided in table KS103EW (252 Kb Excel sheet) .

Notes for - Marital status

  1. The Civil Partnership Act 2004 came into effect in the UK on 5 December, 2005.

- Household composition

Household composition refers to the usual residents in a household and their relationship to each other. Households may be a family or they may consist of one person living alone or unrelated adults sharing. A family is a couple (married, civil partners or cohabiting), with or without children, or a lone parent with at least one child. Children may be dependent or non-dependent.

Of the 23.4 million households in England and Wales on 27 March 2011, the most reported household type was where there was one family (62 per cent, 14.4 million) followed by those where there was one person living alone (30 per cent, 7.1 million). Table 6 shows the details.

Table 6: Household composition

England and Wales, 2001 and 2011, all households

Thousands, per cent
Household composition 2001 2011
Number Per cent Number Per cent
One family  Married or same sex civil partnership couple 7,915 37 7,757 33
Lone parent 2,063 10 2,488 11
Cohabiting couple 1,794 8 2,298 10
All aged 65 and over 1,943 9 1,905 8
One person  One person household 6,503 30 7,067 30
Other Other household type 1,442 7 1,850 8

Table source: Office for National Statistics

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There was a two percentage point increase in households containing one cohabiting couple family; from eight per cent (1.8 million) in 2001 to 10 per cent (2.3 million) in 2011.

The proportion of lone parents also increased, by one percentage point, from 10 per cent (2.1 million) in 2001 to 11 per cent (2.5 million) in 2011, while the proportion of households containing one married family decreased four percentage points from 37 per cent (7.9 million) in 2001 to 33 per cent (7.8 million) in 2011. Although the decrease reflects the decrease in numbers of marriages since the 1970’s, this category is not directly comparable between 2001 and 2011 because the 2011 category includes civil partnerships for the first time.

Information on household composition is provided in table KS105EW (336 Kb Excel sheet) .

- Residents in communal establishments

The 2011 Census estimated that 98 per cent (55.1 million) of usual residents in England and Wales lived in households. Two per cent (1.0 million) lived in communal establishments, similar to 2001 (two per cent, 858,000). Communal establishments provide managed residential accommodation; examples include sheltered accommodation units, student halls, large hotels, hospitals and prisons.

In 2011, 57 per cent (572,000) of all communal establishment residents in England and Wales resided in non-medical establishments, including large hotels, student halls or prisons. This was a decrease of three percentage points on 2001 (54 per cent, 460,000).

Forty two per cent (420,000) of communal establishment residents were in medical and care establishments; 38 per cent (383,000) of this group were in care homes and four per cent (38,000) were in other medical establishments1.

The percentage of communal establishment residents in non-medical establishments varied across the England regions and Wales from 51 per cent (23,000) in the North East to 58 per cent (58,000) in London. The percentage of communal establishment residents in care homes varied between 33 per cent (33,000) in London and 44 per cent (20,000) in the North East.

Information on usual residents in households and communal establishments is provided in table KS101EW (284.5 Kb Excel sheet) and KS405EW (306.5 Kb Excel sheet) .

Notes for - Residents in communal establishments

  1. The other medical establishments include NHS-run establishments, children’s homes and medical establishments run by registered social landlords.

WHAT WE DO

The census is valuable in providing a detailed picture at a point in time of the characteristics of the population. This section covers how we occupied ourselves, whether we provided care for less able members of society, what we did to earn money, what levels of qualifications we had, whether we were employed and if so where and how many hours we worked.

  • Ten per cent (5.8 million) of residents of England and Wales provided unpaid care for someone with an illness or disability. This was the same percentage as in 2001 (10 per cent, 5.2 million).

  • In 2011, 70 per cent (28.7 million) of residents aged between 16 and 74 (41.1 million) were economically active. Fifty five per cent (15.8 million) of economically active usual residents in 2011 were full-time employees.

  • In 2011, 13 per cent (3.5 million) of the population aged 16 to 74 in employment worked 49 hours or more, down three percentage points from 16 per cent (3.8 million) in 2001.

  • In 2011, 27 per cent (12.4 million) of usual residents aged 16 and over reported qualifications of Level 4 or above, eg Bachelor’s degree. In London, 38 per cent (2.5 million) of usual residents aged 16 and over had achieved a qualification of Level 4 or above.

  • The Wholesale and retail trade was the largest employer of the 16 to 74 age group in 2011 with 16 per cent (4.2 million) of employed usual residents working in this sector.

- Provision of unpaid care

A person is a provider of unpaid care if they look after or give help or support to family members, friends, neighbours or others because of long-term physical or mental ill health or disability, or problems related to old age. This does not include any activities as part of paid employment.

Table 7 shows that 10 per cent (5.8 million) of usual residents were giving care in 2011. This is the same percentage as in 2001 (10 per cent, 5.2 million). Of this group, over a third (37 per cent, 2.1 million) were giving 20 or more hours care a week, an increase of five percentage points (473,000) on 2001 (32 per cent, 1.7 million).

Table 7: Provision of unpaid care

England and Wales, 2001 and 2011, all usual residents

Hours per week 2001 2011
Number Per cent Number Per cent
None 46,824 90 50,276 90
1 to 19 3,556 7 3,665 7
20 to 49 574 1 775 1
50 or more 1,088 2 1,360 2

Table source: Office for National Statistics

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Figure 14 shows that a higher percentage (12 per cent, 370,000) of usual residents in Wales were unpaid caregivers than in any England region, and Wales also had the highest percentages of 20 to 49 and 50 or more hours of care provided; two per cent (54,000) and three per cent (104,000) respectively.

A lower percentage of London residents (eight per cent, 690,000) provided unpaid care than in any other England region.

Figure 14: Provision of unpaid care by hours given

England regions, Wales, 2011, All usual residents

Provision of unpaid care by hours given
Source: Census - Office for National Statistics

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Information on provision of unpaid care is provided in table KS301EW (403.5 Kb Excel sheet) .

- Economic activity

For this statistical release, economic activity1 is presented for usual residents aged between 16 and 74. A usual resident is considered economically active if employed, self-employed or unemployed but looking for work and able to start within two weeks. In 2011, 70 per cent (28.7 million) of usual residents aged between 16 and 74 (41.1 million) were economically active.

Economic activity as collected by 2011 Census is not directly comparable with 2001 due to factors that include changes in the underlying classification and improvements in the questions on the census questionnaire. ONS will publish analysis in 2013 to help users to understand how these estimates have changed in the 10 year period.

The region with the highest economic activity amongst 16 to 74 year old usual residents in 2011 was the South East with 72 per cent (4.5 million) economically active usual residents. Wales had a lower level of economic activity amongst 16 to 74 year old usual residents than any England region, with 66 per cent (1.5 million) economically active people.

Economic activity is categorised into various groups2 as shown in Figure 15.

Figure 15 also highlights the differences in male and female employment types amongst 16 to 74 year olds. In 2011 almost four times as many women (33 per cent, 4.4 million) were part-time employees compared to men (eight per cent, 1.2 million).

Figure 15: Economic activity by sex

England and Wales, 2011, Economically active usual residents aged 16 to 74

Economic activity by sex
Source: Census - Office for National Statistics

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Information on economic activity is provided in tables KS601EW (360.5 Kb Excel sheet) , KS602EW (361 Kb Excel sheet) and KS603EW (358.5 Kb Excel sheet) .

Hours worked

The number of hours worked1 by employed usual residents aged 16 to 74 decreased overall between 2001 and 2011. In 2001, 16 per cent (3.8 million) of this group worked 49 hours or more. This decreased by three percentage points to 13 per cent in 2011. Similarly; in 2001, 59 per cent (14.0 million) of this population worked 31 to 48 hours; this decreased by one percentage point to 58 per cent (15.3 million) in 2011.

Figure 16 shows the clear difference between males and females in the numbers of hours worked.

Figure 16: Hours worked per week by sex

England and Wales, 2011, Employed usual residents aged 16 to 74

Hours worked per week by sex
Source: Census - Office for National Statistics

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Information on hours worked is provided in table KS604EW (382.5 Kb Excel sheet) .

Unemployment

According to 2011 Census, six per cent (1.8 million) of the economically active population in England and Wales aged between 16 and 74 was unemployed1. This group includes those who had never worked (less than one per cent, 291,000), and those who reported long-term unemployment (one per cent, 706,924).

Economic activity as collected by 2011 Census is not directly comparable with 2001 due to factors that include changes in the underlying classification and improvements in the questions on the census questionnaire. ONS will publish analysis in 2013 to help users to understand how these estimates have changed in the 10 year period.

The level of unemployment varied between the regions from eight per cent (103,000) in the North East to five per cent (126,000) in the South West, as can be seen in Figure 17.

Figure 17: Unemployment

England regions, Wales, 2011, Economically active usual residents aged 16 to 74

Unemployment
Source: Census - Office for National Statistics

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Information on unemployment as collected by the census is provided in tables KS601EW (360.5 Kb Excel sheet) , KS602EW (361 Kb Excel sheet) and KS603EW (358.5 Kb Excel sheet) .

Notes for - Economic activity

  1. Due to definitional differences, and because the census questionnaire is self completed by the population of England and Wales, the census estimates of people in employment may differ from other sources as, for example, some respondents may include voluntary work when asked about employment. The most authoritative and up to date estimates of the labour market status, including employment and  unemployment, are the labour market statistics that ONS publishes monthly. The census is valuable in providing a detailed picture at the time of the census of the characteristics of the economically active population.

  2. Full-time students and the self-employed may also be part-time workers.

- Qualifications

The qualifications classification enables estimates to be produced of the percentage of the population obtaining the highest level of the academic and vocational or professional qualifications. Although not a new question in 2011, some of the qualifications estimates are not directly comparable with 2001. This is due to multiple factors including changes in the level assigned to some qualifications, and the addition of a foreign qualification tick-box. Briefly the level categorisation is as follows:

  • No qualifications: No formal qualifications.

  • Level 1: 1-4 GCSEs or equivalent qualifications.

  • Level 2: 5 GCSEs or equivalent qualifications.

  • Apprenticeships.

  • Level 3: 2 or more A-levels or equivalent qualifications.

  • Level 4 or above: Bachelors degree or equivalent, and higher qualifications.

  • Other qualifications including foreign qualifications.

In England and Wales 27 per cent (12.4 million) of usual residents aged 16 and over had achieved Level 4 or above qualifications in 2011. As shown in Figure 18, this was a higher percentage than those that had no qualifications; 23 per cent (10.3 million). The group who reported no qualifications includes those aged 16 and over who were still studying ie some respondents had not completed their education.

Figure 18: Highest level of qualification

England and Wales, 2011, Usual residents aged 16 and above

Highest level of qualification
Source: Census - Office for National Statistics

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Of the England regions and Wales, London reported the highest levels of qualifications held; 38 per cent (2.5 million) of usual residents had Level 4 or above qualifications and 18 per cent (1.2 million) of usual residents had no qualifications.

Excluding London, the highest percentage of Level 4 or above attainment was 30 per cent (2.1 million) in the South East, with the lowest percentage of Level 4 or above attainment in the North East at 22 per cent (473,000), a difference of eight percentage points. When London is included, this range doubles to a difference of 16 percentage points, seen between London and the North East. The percentage of the usually resident population in London and surrounding regions with Level 4 or above qualifications may be related to increased levels of graduate employment opportunities in these areas.

Figure 19: Highest level of qualification

England regions, Wales, 2011, Usual residents aged 16 and over

Highest level of qualification
Source: Census - Office for National Statistics

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Information on qualifications is provided in table KS501EW (307 Kb Excel sheet) .

- Industry and occupation

In England and Wales in 2011, 26.5 million employed usual residents aged between 16 and 74 reported their industry and occupation1.

Industry

As can be seen in Table 8, the Wholesale and retail trade was the largest employer of the 16 to 74 age group in 2011 with 16 per cent (4.2 million) of employed usual residents working in this sector.

Economic activity as collected by 2011 Census is not directly comparable with 2001 due to factors that include changes in the underlying classification and improvements in the questions on the census questionnaire. ONS will publish analysis in 2013 to help users to understand how these estimates have changed in the 10 year period.

Table 8: Industry

England and Wales, 2011, employed usual residents aged 16 to 74

Thousands, per cent
Industry  Number Per cent
Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motor cycles 4,220 15.9
Human health and social work activities 3,318 12.5
Education 2,628 9.9
Manufacturing 2,370 8.9
Construction 2,043 7.7
Professional, scientific and technical activities 1,746 6.6
Public administration and defence; compulsory social security 1,592 6.0
Accommodation and food service activities 1,485 5.6
Transport and storage 1,313 5.0
Other 1,319 5.0
Administrative and support service activities 1,294 4.9
Financial and insurance activities 1,145 4.3
Information and communication 1,055 4.0
Real estate activities 384 1.4
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 227 0.9
Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities 188 0.7
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply  151 0.6
Mining and quarrying 46 0.2

Table source: Office for National Statistics

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As well as being the largest industry of employment nationally in 2011, the Wholesale and retail trade was also the largest employer in nearly all the England regions and Wales - except London, in which the Real estate activities sector had a greater workforce (19 per cent, 748,000).

Information on industry is provided in tables KS605EW (418 Kb Excel sheet) , KS606EW (418.5 Kb Excel sheet) and KS607EW (415 Kb Excel sheet) .

Occupation

In 2011, the occupation1 with the highest number of respondents was the Professional group (17 per cent, 4.6 million), with Process, plant and machine operatives at the opposite end of the scale (seven per cent, 1.9 million).

Economic activity as collected by 2011 Census is not directly comparable with 2001 due to factors that include changes in the underlying classification and improvements in the questions on the census questionnaire. ONS will publish analysis in 2013 to help users to understand how these estimates have changed in the 10 year period.

Table 9: Occupation

England and Wales, 2011, employed usual residents aged 16 to 74

Thousands, per cent
Occupation  Number Per cent
Professional occupations 4,616 17.4
Associate professional and technical occupations 3,366 12.7
Skilled trades occupations 3,042 11.5
Administrative and secretarial occupations 3,035 11.4
Elementary occupations 2,955 11.1
Managers, directors and senior officials 2,861 10.8
Caring, leisure and other service occupations 2,492 9.4
Sales and customer service occupations 2,241 8.4
Process, plant and machine operatives 1,919 7.2

Table source: Office for National Statistics

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Information on occupation is provided in tables KS608EW (302.5 Kb Excel sheet) , KS609EW (301.5 Kb Excel sheet) and KS610EW (304.5 Kb Excel sheet) .

Notes for - Industry and occupation

  1. Due to definitional differences, and because the census questionnaire is self completed by the population of England and Wales, the census estimates of people in employment may differ from other sources as, for example, some respondents may include voluntary work when asked about employment. The most authoritative and up to date estimates of the labour market status including employment and  unemployment are the labour market statistics that ONS publishes monthly. The census is valuable in providing a detailed picture at the time of the census of the characteristics of the economically active population.

Background notes

  1. This publication follows the 2011 Census Population and Household Estimates for England & Wales. The census provides estimates of the characteristics of all people and households in England and Wales on census night. These are produced for a variety of users including government, local and unitary authorities, business and communities. The census provides population statistics from a national to local level. This short story discusses the results for England & Wales.

  2. In making comparisons to 2001, the population estimates (by age and sex) have been compared with the mid-year estimates for 2001, 52.4 million. For other characteristics, comparisons are made with 2001 Census estimates, 52.0 million. Footnotes are provided with tables to identify the data sources used.

  3. 2001 Census data are available via the Neighbourhood Statistics website. Relevant table numbers are provided in all download files within this publication.

  4. Interactive data visualisations developed by ONS are also available to aid interpretation of the results.

  5. Future releases from the 2011 Census will include more detail in cross tabulations, and tabulations at other geographies. These include wards, health areas, parliamentary constituencies, postcode sectors and national parks. Further information on future releases is available online in the 2011 Census Prospectus.

  6. Due to definitional differences, and because the census questionnaire is self completed by the population of England and Wales, the census estimates of people in employment may differ from other sources as, for example, some respondents may include voluntary work when asked about employment. The most authoritative and up to date estimates of the labour market status including employment and  unemployment are the labour market statistics that ONS publishes monthly. The census is valuable in providing a detailed picture at the time of the census of the characteristics of the economically active population.

  7. ONS has ensured that the data collected meet users' needs via an extensive 2011 Census outputs consultation process in order to ensure that the 2011 Census outputs will be of increased use in the planning of housing, education, health and transport services in future years.

  8. Any reference to local authorities includes both local and unitary authorities.

  9. Figures in this publication may not sum due to rounding. Percentage point changes in the text are based on rounded data.

  10. The England and Wales census questionnaires asked the same questions with one exception; an additional question on Welsh language was included on the Wales questionnaire.

  11. ONS is responsible for carrying out the census in England and Wales. Simultaneous but separate censuses took place in Scotland and Northern Ireland. These were run by the National Records of Scotland (NRS) and the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA) respectively.

  12. ONS is responsible for the publication of UK statistics (compiling comparable statistics from the UK statistical agencies above). These will be compiled as each of the three statistical agencies involved publish the relevant data. The Northern Ireland census prospectus and the Scotland census prospectus) are available online. The first release of UK population estimates will take place on 17 December 2012.

  13. A person's place of usual residence is in most cases the address at which they stay the majority of the time. For many people this will be their permanent or family home. If a member of the services did not have a permanent or family address at which they are usually resident, they were recorded as usually resident at their base address.

  14. A household is defined as one person living alone, or a group of people (not necessarily related) living at the same address who share cooking facilities and share a living room, sitting room or dining area.

  15. All key terms used in this publication are explained in the 2011 Census glossary. Information on the 2011 Census Geography Products for England and Wales is also available.

  16. All census population estimates were extensively quality assured, using other national and local sources of information for comparison and review by a series of quality assurance panels. An extensive range of quality assurance, evaluation and methodology papers were published alongside the first release in July 2012 and have been updated in this release, including a Quality and Methodology Information (QMI) document (152.8 Kb Pdf) .

  17. The 2011 Census achieved its overall target response rate of 94 per cent of the usually resident population of England and Wales, and over 80 per cent in all local and unitary authorities. The population estimate for England and Wales of 56.1 million is estimated with 95 per cent confidence to be accurate to within +/- 85,000 (0.15 per cent).

  18. Details of the policy governing the release of new data are available by visiting www.statisticsauthority.gov.uk/assessment/code-of-practice/index.html or from the Media Relations Office email: media.relations@ons.gsi.gov.uk

    These National Statistics are produced to high professional standards and released according to the arrangements approved by the UK Statistics Authority.

Statistical contacts

Name Phone Department Email
Emma White +44 (0)1329 444972 2011 Census census.customerservices@ons.gsi.gov.uk
Get all the tables for this publication in the data section of this publication .
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