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Statistical bulletin: Labour Productivity, Q4 2012 This product is designated as National Statistics

Released: 28 March 2013 Download PDF

Key Points

  • On an output per hour basis, UK labour productivity fell by 0.5% in the fourth quarter of 2012. Market sector productivity fell by 0.6% on this basis, to its lowest level since 2005.
  • Output per hour fell by 0.8% in the manufacturing sector in the fourth quarter and at the same rate in the broader production sector. Output per hour in the service sector fell by 0.5% in Q4.
  • Whole economy unit labour costs increased by 0.5% in Q4 and were 1.8% higher than a year earlier. Manufacturing unit wage costs increased by 1.7% in Q4 and were 7.4% higher than a year earlier.
  • Estimates in this release are based on unbenchmarked jobs data for Q4. Benchmarked data will be published in the April 2013 edition of Labour Market Statistics and will be incorporated in the June 2013 edition of this release.

About this release

This quarterly bulletin contains labour productivity statistics for the fourth quarter of 2012 for the whole economy and a range of industries, together with selected data on unit labour costs. Labour productivity measures the amount of real (inflation adjusted) economic output that is produced by a unit of labour input (in terms of workers, jobs and hours worked) and is a key indicator of economic performance. This release also contains revised annual regional productivity indicators following a methodological review.

Output statistics in this release are consistent with Quarterly National Accounts published on 27 March 2013. Labour input measures are consistent with Labour Market Statistics published on 20 March 2013, together with unbenchmarked employee jobs estimates for the fourth quarter of 2012. More information on sources used in this release is available in the Note on sources section below.

Interpreting these statistics

At the whole economy level output (gross value added – GVA) fell by 0.3% in the fourth quarter of 2012, while the Labour Force Survey (LFS) shows that the number of workers and jobs (which are closely correlated) rose by 0.6% and 0.5% respectively, and the number of hours worked rose by 0.3%1

Since growth of labour productivity can be decomposed as growth of GVA minus growth of labour input, this combination of falling output and rising jobs, workers and hours implies that UK output per worker and output per job fell over this period (by 0.8% in each case), while UK output per hour fell by 0.5%2.

Care should be taken in interpreting labour productivity movements between the third and fourth quarters due to the effects on output and employment in the third quarter from the Olympic and Paralympic Games. A detailed article describing possible effects of the Olympic and Paralympic Games was published by ONS on 25 October 2012.

Differences between growth of output per worker and output per job reflect movements in the share of workers with second jobs, which are typically not large. Differences between these measures and output per hour reflect movements in average hours which, though typically not large from quarter to quarter, can be material over a period of time. For example, a shift towards part-time employment will tend to reduce average hours. For this reason, output per hour is a more comprehensive indicator of labour productivity and is the main focus of the commentary in this release.

Unit labour costs reflect the full labour costs, including social security and employers’ pension contributions, incurred in the production of a unit of economic output, while unit wage costs are a narrower measure, excluding non-wage labour costs.  Growth rates of these series can be decomposed as growth of labour costs (or wages) per unit of labour input minus growth of labour productivity. An inverse relationship between unit costs and productivity tends to be observed, as wage growth is less cyclical than productivity. Unit labour and unit wage costs also provide an indication of inflationary pressures in the economy.

Most of the series in this release are designated as National Statistics, meaning their production has been subject to rigorous quality assurance and methodological scrutiny. However, some service sector estimates use component series from the Index of Services (IOS) which are designated as experimental statistics (that is, not yet accredited as National Statistics, for example because the methodology is under development or reflecting concerns over data sources). Market sector GVA is also an experimental series.  Labour productivity estimates that use these series as their numerators are also labelled as experimental statistics. More information on the experimental IOS series is available on the Guidance and methodology section of the ONS website. 

For more information on interpreting these statistics see the Background notes section of this bulletin, and the labour productivity Quality and Methodology Information paper.

Notes for Interpreting these statistics

  1. Growth rates for jobs and hours differ slightly from growth rates based on LFS aggregate data due to different methods of seasonal adjustment. 
  2. Differences between growth rates of productivity and (growth of GVA minus growth of labour inputs) are due to rounding.

Whole economy labour productivity

Figure 1 shows whole economy output per worker in terms of percentage changes on the previous quarter and on the previous year. Figure 2 shows whole economy output per hour, and Table A provides a breakdown of the components of labour productivity movements over recent quarters. More information is available in the  Reference Tables (152 Kb Excel sheet)  section of this release, and in the tables at the end of the PDF version of this statistical bulletin.

Figure 1: Whole economy output per worker

Seasonally adjusted

Figure 1: Whole economy output per worker
Source: Office for National Statistics

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Figure 2: Whole economy output per hour

Seasonally adjusted

Figure 2: Whole economy output per hour
Source: Office for National Statistics

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Table A: Whole economy labour productivity components

Seasonally adjusted

Output Productivity Jobs Productivity Hours
Per cent Change on quarter a year ago Change on previous quarter   Change on quarter a year ago Change on previous quarter   Change on quarter a year ago Change on previous quarter
2009 Q3 -3.6 0.3 -1.6 0.0 -2.4 -0.6
Q4 -0.9 0.5 -1.5 -0.1 -0.8 1.4
2010 Q1 1.0 0.4 -1.5 -0.4 -1.3 -2.3
Q2 2.1 0.9 0.3 0.8 0.5 2.0
Q3 2.4 0.6 0.9 0.6 1.1 0.0
Q4 1.5 -0.5 0.7 -0.3 0.2 0.5
2011 Q1 1.6 0.5 1.7 0.6 2.5 0.0
Q2 0.8 0.1 0.8 -0.1 -0.7 -1.2
Q3 0.7 0.6 -0.3 -0.5 0.1 0.8
Q4 0.9 -0.3 0.1 0.1 -0.2 0.2
2012 Q1 0.4 -0.1 0.1 0.6 0.6 0.8
Q2 -0.1 -0.3 0.9 0.7 2.3 0.5
Q3 0.3 1.0 1.7 0.3 2.6 1.1
Q4 0.3 -0.3 2.1 0.5 2.7 0.3

Table source: Office for National Statistics

Table notes:

  1. Output figures are based on the output approach (ABMM) rather than the compromise measure of GVA (CGCE)

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Unit labour costs

Figure 3 shows whole economy unit labour costs in terms of percentage changes on the previous quarter and on the previous year. The movement in unit labour costs in the fourth quarter (up 0.5%) principally reflects lower output per hour; labour costs per hour were broadly flat. On a year-on-year basis, the growth of whole economy unit labour costs was 1.8% in Q4, as slightly lower labour costs per hour helped to offset the impact of the 2.3% fall in labour productivity.

Figure 3: Whole economy unit labour costs

Seasonally adjusted

Figure 3: Whole economy unit labour costs
Source: Office for National Statistics

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Manufacturing unit wage costs (Figure 4) increased by 1.7% in the fourth quarter and by 7.4% compared with a year earlier. As well as being a narrower measure than unit labour costs, the manufacturing unit wage cost series currently uses average weekly earnings (a measure of employee earnings) to proxy the earnings of self-employed workers in the manufacturing sector, which is inconsistent with other ONS data on incomes of the self employed. ONS published proposals for replacing manufacturing unit wage costs with a broader and more consistently derived measure of manufacturing unit labour costs in an article 'Sectional unit labour costs' on 28 November 2012, and it is our intention to replace the current series in future editions of this release.

Figure 4: Manufacturing unit wage costs

Seasonally adjusted

Figure 4: Manufacturing unit wage costs
Source: Office for National Statistics

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More information on unit labour costs and unit wage costs is available in Table 2 in the  Reference Tables (152 Kb Excel sheet)  section of this release, and in the tables at the end of the PDF version of this statistical bulletin.

Manufacturing labour productivity

Figures 5 and 6 show movements in labour productivity in manufacturing in terms of percentage changes on the previous quarter and on the previous year. Table B provides information on the component movements in manufacturing output and labour inputs.

Figure 5: Manufacturing output per job

Seasonally adjusted

Figure 5: Manufacturing output per job
Source: Office for National Statistics

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Figure 6: Manufacturing output per hour

Seasonally adjusted

Figure 6: Manufacturing output per hour
Source: Office for National Statistics

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Table B: Manufacturing labour productivity components

Seasonally adjusted

Output Productivity Jobs Productivity Hours
Per cent Change on quarter a year ago Change on previous quarter   Change on quarter a year ago Change on previous quarter   Change on quarter a year ago Change on previous quarter
2009 Q3 -10.3 -0.4 -6.8 -0.2 -6.8 -0.5
Q4 -4.3 1.1 -5.4 -0.3 -4.7 1.3
2010 Q1 1.7 0.8 -4.4 -1.8 -1.9 -2.9
Q2 3.4 1.9 -2.2 0.1 -0.8 1.3
Q3 5.4 1.6 -1.9 0.1 -0.2 0.1
Q4 4.8 0.5 -1.4 0.2 0.0 1.5
2011 Q1 4.9 0.9 0.0 -0.4 2.3 -0.6
Q2 3.0 0.1 -1.0 -0.9 -1.9 -2.9
Q3 1.1 -0.3 -2.4 -1.2 -2.7 -0.7
Q4 -0.2 -0.9 -3.1 -0.5 -5.0 -0.8
2012 Q1 -1.1 0.0 -1.7 1.0 -2.8 1.7
Q2 -2.1 -1.0 0.6 1.5 1.5 1.4
Q3 -1.2 0.6 2.8 0.9 3.3 1.0
Q4 -1.8 -1.4 3.6 0.2 3.5 -0.6

Table source: Office for National Statistics

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More information on labour productivity of sub-divisions of the manufacturing sector is available in the  Reference Tables (152 Kb Excel sheet)  section of this release (Tables 3 and 4), and in the tables at the end of the PDF version of this statistical bulletin. Care should be taken in interpreting quarter on quarter movements in productivity estimates for individual sub-divisions, as small sample sizes of the source data can cause volatility.

Nevertheless it is apparent that labour productivity of different divisions within manufacturing has varied widely through the recession and its aftermath. In particular, output per hour in Transport equipment (divisions 29-30) and Machinery & equipment (division 28) has increased strongly since 2009, whereas output per hour in Textiles, wearing apparel & leather (divisions 13-15), Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals (divisions 20-21), and Wood & paper products, & printing (divisions 16-18) was well below 2009 levels in the fourth quarter.

Services labour productivity

Figures 7 and 8 show movements in labour productivity in services in terms of percentage changes on the previous quarter and on the previous year. Table C provides information on the component movements in service sector output and labour inputs.

Figure 7: Services output per job

Seasonally adjusted

Figure 7: Services output per job
Source: Office for National Statistics

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Figure 8: Services output per hour

Seasonally adjusted

Figure 8: Services output per hour
Source: Office for National Statistics

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Table C: Services labour productivity components

Seasonally adjusted

Output Productivity Jobs Productivity Hours
Per cent Change on quarter a year ago Change on previous quarter   Change on quarter a year ago Change on previous quarter   Change on quarter a year ago Change on previous quarter
2009 Q3 -1.3 0.5 -0.8 0.2 -1.5 -0.5
Q4 0.6 0.6 -0.5 0.1 0.0 1.4
2010 Q1 1.3 0.2 -0.6 -0.2 -0.7 -2.0
Q2 1.4 0.2 0.9 0.8 0.7 1.8
Q3 1.4 0.4 1.4 0.7 1.4 0.2
Q4 0.4 -0.4 1.1 -0.2 0.3 0.3
2011 Q1 0.9 0.6 2.1 0.8 2.7 0.4
Q2 0.9 0.2 1.4 0.1 -0.1 -1.0
Q3 1.3 0.8 0.0 -0.7 0.5 0.8
Q4 1.6 0.0 0.5 0.3 0.8 0.6
2012 Q1 1.3 0.3 0.3 0.6 1.2 0.8
Q2 0.9 -0.2 0.9 0.7 2.7 0.5
Q3 1.3 1.2 2.1 0.5 3.4 1.5
Q4 1.2 0.0 2.5 0.7 3.2 0.5

Table source: Office for National Statistics

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More information on labour productivity of sections within the service sector is available in Tables 5 and 6 in the  Reference Tables (152 Kb Excel sheet)  section of this release, and in the tables at the end of the PDF version of this statistical bulletin. 

In general, the dispersion of labour productivity performance across the service sector is less striking than within manufacturing. The sharp reduction in output per hour in Arts, entertainment & recreation (section R) in the fourth quarter mainly reflects an unwinding of the stimulus to output in Q3 in this section from the Olympic and Paralympic Games. 

Market sector labour productivity - experimental statistics

Figure 9 shows movements in labour productivity in the market sector compared with the equivalent series for the whole economy. In the fourth quarter, market sector output per hour fell at around the same rate as for the whole economy. Between the trough of the recession in 2009Q2 and 2012Q4, output has increased by approximately 3.5% in both the market sector and the economy as a whole. By contrast, over this period hours worked in the market sector have increased by around 2 percentage points more than hours worked in the whole economy.

Figure 9: Market sector and whole economy output per hour

Seasonally adjusted

Figure 9: Market sector and whole economy output per hour
Source: Office for National Statistics

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Longer time series on market sector labour productivity are available in Table 7 in the Reference Tables (152 Kb Excel sheet)  section of this release, and in the tables at the end of the PDF version of this statistical bulletin.

Regional labour productivity

ONS does not currently produce regional estimates of real (inflation adjusted) economic output, so in this section we use regional estimates of nominal GVA (NGVA) up to 2011, consistent with the regional GVA release on 12 December 2012. The estimates in Table 9 of the  Reference Tables (152 Kb Excel sheet)  section of this release, and in the tables at the end of the PDF version of this statistical bulletin indicate the relative value of economic output per job and per hour across the NUTS 1 regions, indexed to the UK=100. In interpreting these statistics it should be borne in mind that they do not take account of price differences across regions (for example in housing costs) and should not therefore be interpreted as measures of relative living standards.

As notified in an Information Note published on 28 February 2013, some methodological changes have been introduced which have led to revisions to the regional estimates first published on 3 January 2013, although the broad picture is unchanged. Figure 10 shows that of the NUTS 1 regions, only in London and the South East is NGVA per job above the UK average in 2011. By the same token, Wales and Northern Ireland exhibited the lowest NGVA per job in 2011.

A broadly similar pattern obtains for NGVA per hour (Figure 11). Differences between Figures 10 and 11 reflect differences in average hours worked across the regions. In 2011, average hours worked were 7.4% above the UK average in London and 3.0% below the average in the North East.

Figure 10: Regional nominal GVA per job, 2011

United Kingdom, NUTS1 regions

Figure 10: Regional nominal GVA per job, 2011
Source: Office for National Statistics

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Figure 11: Regional nominal GVA per hour, 2011

Seasonally adjusted

Figure 11: Regional nominal GVA per hour, 2011
Source: Office for National Statistics

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Revisions

Table R1 in the  Reference Tables (152 Kb Excel sheet)  section of this release (and in the tables at the end of the PDF version of this statistical bulletin) shows revisions to growth rates of the main productivity variables for the whole economy, manufacturing and services between this release and the previous release on 03 January 2013.

This release incorporates revisions to GVA from 2011Q1 and revisions to employee jobs for 2012Q3. There are no revisions to LFS aggregate estimates for workers, jobs or hours.

A research note on sources of revisions (145.4 Kb Pdf)  to labour productivity estimates is available on the ONS website.

Table D below summarises differences between first published estimates for each of the statistics in the first column with the estimates for the same statistics published three years later. This summary is based on five years of data, that is, for first estimates of quarters between 2005Q1 and 2009Q4, which is the last quarter for which a three-year revision history is available. The averages of these differences with and without regard to sign are shown in the right hand columns of the table, and these can be compared with the value of the estimates in the latest quarter, shown in the second column. Additional information on revisions to these and other statistics published in this release is available in the  Revisions triangles (858.7 Kb ZIP) component of this release.

This revisions analysis shows that whole economy labour productivity growth estimates have tended to be revised down over time, by around 0.2 percentage points (on a year-on-year basis), while unit labour cost growth estimates have tended to be revised up by a similar magnitude. Absolute revisions have been larger for unit labour costs than for productivity. Were the average revisions to apply to the current release, growth of output per hour in the year to the fourth quarter of 2012 would be revised down from -2.3% to -2.5% three years from now, and growth of unit labour costs would be revised up from 1.8% to 2.1% over the same period.

Table D: Revisions analysis

Whole economy

Revisions between first publication and estimates three years later (2005Q1 - 2009Q4)
Change on quarter a year ago Value in latest period (per cent) Average over 5 years (bias) Average over 5 years without regard to sign (average absolute revision)
Output per worker -1.7 -0.2 0.7
Output per job -1.8 -0.1 0.7
Output per hour -2.3 -0.2 0.5
Unit labour costs 1.8 0.3 1.0
Unit wage costs 2.4 0.2 0.9

Table source: Office for National Statistics

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Notes on sources

The measure of output used in these statistics is the chain volume measure of Gross Value Added (GVA) at basic prices, with the exception of the regional analysis in Table 9 (in the  Reference Tables (152 Kb Excel sheet)  and the PDF version of this statistical bulletin), where the output measure is nominal GVA (NGVA). These measures differ because NGVA is not adjusted to account for price changes; this means that if prices were to rise more quickly in one region than the others, then it would be reflected in improved measured productivity performance in that region relative to the others.

Labour input measures used in this bulletin are known as 'productivity jobs' and 'productivity hours'. Productivity jobs differ from the workforce jobs (WFJ) estimates published in Table 6 of the Labour Market Statistics Bulletin, in three ways:

  • To achieve consistency with the measurement of GVA, the employee component of productivity jobs is derived on a reporting unit (RU) basis, whereas the employee component of the WFJ estimates is on a local unit (LU) basis. This is explained further below.

  • Productivity jobs are scaled so industries sum to total LFS jobs. Note that this constraint is applied in non-seasonally adjusted terms. The nature of the seasonal adjustment process means that the sum of seasonally adjusted productivity jobs and hours by industry can differ slightly from the seasonally adjusted LFS totals.

  • Productivity jobs are calendar quarter average estimates whereas WFJ estimates are provided for the last month of each quarter.

As noted earlier, the March edition of Labour Market Statistics would normally include WFJ estimates for December 2012 and revisions to back series arising from annual benchmarking. However, due to operational difficulties there was insufficient time to quality assure these estimates to meet the March Labour Market Statistics release date. Accordingly, in this release we use unbenchmarked RU employee jobs for Q4, together with some minor revisions to Q3 estimates reflecting the normal practice of accommodating late survey returns. Full benchmarked revisions to WFJ are scheduled to be published in the April edition of Labour Market Statistics on 17 April 2013. Corresponding revisions to RU employee jobs will be incorporated in the next edition of this Labour Productivity release, due to be published on 28 June 2013.

Productivity hours are derived by multiplying productivity jobs at an industry level (before seasonal adjustment) by average actual hours worked from the LFS at an industry level. Results are scaled so industries sum to total unadjusted LFS hours, and then seasonally adjusted. 

Industry estimates of average hours derived in this process differ from published estimates (found in Table HOUR03 in Labour Market Statistics) as the LFS allocates all hours worked to the industry of main employment, whereas the productivity hours system disaggregates LFS hours into both industry of main employment and secondary employment.

Whole economy unit labour costs are calculated as the ratio of total labour costs (that is, the product of labour input and costs per unit of labour) to GVA. Further detail on the methodology can be found in Revised methodology for unit wage costs and unit labour costs: explanation and impact.

Manufacturing unit wage costs are calculated as the ratio of manufacturing average weekly earnings (AWE) to manufacturing output per filled job. On 28 November 2012 ONS published proposals for new measures of unit labour costs below the whole economy level, including replacing the currently published series for manufacturing unit wage costs with a broader and more consistent measure of unit labour costs. A user group meeting to discuss these proposals was held on 19 February 2013; see Background note number 6 for more information on this meeting.

What is a reporting unit?

The term 'enterprise' is used by ONS to describe the structure of a company. Individual workplaces are known as 'local units' and a group of local units under common ownership is called the 'enterprise'. Reporting units are the parts of enterprises that return data to ONS. While the majority of reporting units and enterprises are the same, larger enterprises have been split into reporting units to make the reporting easier.

For most business surveys run by ONS, forms are sent to the reporting unit rather than local units, in other words, to the head office rather than individual workplaces. This enables ONS to gather information on a greater proportion of total business activity than would be possible by sending forms to a selection of local units. But it has the disadvantage that it is difficult to make regional estimates – for instance all the employment of, say, a chain of shops would be reported as being concentrated at the site of the head office.

Further differences between reporting unit and local unit data can be seen in the industry coding. Take, for example, a reporting unit with three cake shops and one bakery, each employing five people. The local unit analysis would put 15 employees in the retail sector and five employees in the manufacturing sector. But the reporting unit series puts all 20 people into the sector with the majority activity, in this case, retailing. Detailed industry figures compiled using the local unit approach will therefore be different from industry figures using the reporting unit approach, although the totals will be the same at the whole economy level.

Background notes

  1. This statistical bulletin

    This statistical bulletin presents Labour Productivity estimates for the UK. More detail can be found on the Productivity Measures Topic page on the ONS website.

    Index numbers are referenced to 2009=100, are classified to the 2007 revision to the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) and are seasonally adjusted.

    Quarter on previous quarter changes in output per job and output per hour worked for some of the manufacturing sub-sections and services sections should be interpreted with caution as the small sample sizes used can cause volatility.

  2. Quality and Methodology

    A revised and updated Quality and Methodology Information paper for Labour Productivity was published in March 2012. This paper describes the intended uses of the statistics presented in this publication, their quality and methods used to produce them. It also includes more information on the uses and limitations of labour productivity estimates.

  3. Future developments

    ONS is currently undertaking a review of reporting unit (RU) and local unit (LU) based measures of employment by industry, which may lead to changes in methodology and results for productivity jobs and productivity hours.

    On 28 November 2012 ONS published an article setting out a methodology for producing quarterly estimates of unit labour costs below the whole economy level. Following consultation with users, ONS intends to publish estimates using this methodology with effect from the next labour productivity release on 28 June 2013, and in particular to replace the existing series for manufacturing unit wage costs (DIX4) with a new series for manufacturing unit labour costs.  

  4. Other data on productivity

    ONS publishes International comparisons of labour productivity in levels and growth rates for the G7 countries.

    More international data on productivity are available from the OECD, Eurostat, and the Conference Board.

    ONS publishes experimental estimates of Multi-factor productivity (MFP), which decompose output growth into the contributions that can be accounted for by labour and capital inputs. In these estimates, the contribution of labour is further decomposed into quantity (hours worked) and quality dimensions.

    ONS also publishes experimental indices of labour costs per hour. These differ from the concept of labour costs used in the unit labour cost estimates in this release. The main difference is that experimental indices of labour costs per hour relate to employees only, whereas unit labour costs also include the labour remuneration of the self-employed.

    Lastly, ONS publishes a range of Public sector productivity measures and related articles. These measures define productivity differently from that used in the ONS labour productivity and MFP estimates. Further information can be found in Phelps (2010) (252.5 Kb Pdf) .

    More information on the range of ONS productivity estimates can be found in the ONS Productivity Handbook.

  5. Publication policy

    Details of the policy governing the release of new data are available from the Media Relations Office.  National Statistics are produced to high professional standards set out in the Code of Practice for Official Statistics. They undergo regular quality assurance reviews to ensure that they meet customer needs. They are produced free from political interference.  You may use or re-use this information (not including logos) free of charge in any format or medium, under the terms of the Open Government Licence. To view this licence, visit www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/ or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: psi@nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk.

    ONS publishes a pre-release access list for each of its publications, outlining the roles of those people granted access to the bulletin 24 hours before the general public.

    All of the data in this release can be downloaded free of charge from the ONS website. Additionally, disaggregated data on productivity jobs and productivity hours are available on request. 

    Further information on how to obtain a full time series of the data from this bulletin can be found in the chart download component of this release (which can be accessed by clicking on the 'Download chart' hyperlink below each chart in the HTML version) and in a forthcoming ONS Information Note.

  6. User engagement

    A meeting of the Productivity Statistics User Group was held in London on 19 February 2013. A note of the meeting is available here. ONS is keen to develop a  greater understanding of the use made of labour productivity statistics. If you have something to tell us, please use this feedback form, or email us at productivity@ons.gsi.gov.uk.

    You can follow ONS on Twitter: www.twitter.com/statisticsons and Facebook: www.facebook.com/statisticsons and watch our videos at www.youtube.com/onsstats

  7. Details of the policy governing the release of new data are available by visiting www.statisticsauthority.gov.uk/assessment/code-of-practice/index.html or from the Media Relations Office email: media.relations@ons.gsi.gov.uk

    These National Statistics are produced to high professional standards and released according to the arrangements approved by the UK Statistics Authority.

Statistical contacts

Name Phone Department Email
Mark Franklin +44 (0)1633 455981 ONS productivity@ons.gsi.gov.uk
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