The Producer Price Index (PPI) is a monthly survey that measures the price changes of goods bought and sold by UK manufacturers and provides a key measure of inflation, alongside other indicators such as the Consumer Prices Index (CPI) and Services Producer Prices Index (SPPI). This statistical bulletin contains a comprehensive selection of data on input and output index series. It contains producer price indices of materials and fuels purchased and output of manufacturing industry by broad sector.
The output price indices measure change in the prices of goods produced by UK manufacturers (these are often called 'factory gate prices').
The input price indices measure change in the prices of materials and fuels bought by UK manufacturers for processing. These are not limited to just those materials used in the final product, but also include what is required by the company in its normal day to day running.
Imported Price Indices (IPIs) are a series of economic indicators that measure change in the prices of goods and raw materials imported into the UK. IPIs are a key component of input price indices.
Exported Price Indices (EPIs) are a series of economic indicators that measure change in the prices of goods manufactured in the UK but destined for export markets.
The factory gate price (the output price) is the price of goods sold by UK manufacturers, and is the actual cost of manufacturing goods before any additional charges are added which would give a profit. It includes costs such as labour, raw materials and energy, as well as costs such as interest on loans, site/building maintenance or rent.
Core factory gate inflation excludes price movements from food, beverages, petroleum and tobacco & alcohol products, which tend to have volatile price movements. It should give a better indication of the underlyng output inflation rates.
The input price is the cost of goods bought by UK manufacturers for the use in manufacturing, such as the actual cost of materials and fuels bought for processing.
Core input inflation strips out purchases from the more volatile food, beverage, tobacco and petroleum industries to give an indication of the underlying input inflation pressures facing the UK manufacturing sector.
Factory gate inflation stands at just over 1%, having been relatively stable at around 2% in quarter 1 of 2013. Output inflation has slowed steadily since the end of 2011 (Figure A). Core factory gate inflation, stripping out the more volatile food, beverages, tobacco & petroleum products, showed a similar pattern, running at a lower rate, although the decline was slower because petrol prices were pushing up inflation in 2011, which have a lesser effect on core inflation.
Looking at the more recent estimates (Table A), movements in factory gate prices over the 12 months to May were as follows:
Factory gate prices rose 1.2%, up from a rise of 0.9% last month.
Core factory gate prices rose 0.8%, up from a rise of 0.7% last month.
Factory gate inflation excluding excise duty stood at 1.4%, compared with a rise of 1.0% in the year to April.
Between April and May:
Factory gate prices were unchanged, compared with a fall of 0.2% between March and April. The main upward contributions were from clothing, textiles & leather and food products. These were mainly offset by a fall in the price of petroleum and chemcials & pharmaceutical products (see Table C).
Core factory gate prices rose 0.1%, compared with no movement last month.
|All manufactured products||Excluding food, beverages, tobacco & petroleum||All manufactured products excluding duty|
|1 month||12 months||1 month||12 months||1 month||12 months|
Table B shows the annual percentage change in price across all product groups and Figure B shows their contribution to the annual factory gate inflation rate. Table C and Figure C show the same information but for the monthly factory gate inflation rate.
|Product group||Percentage change|
|Tobacco & alcohol||3.4|
|Clothing, textiles & leather||2.2|
|Paper & printing||-1.0|
|Chemicals & pharmaceuticals||-1.3|
|Metal, machinery & equipment||0.2|
|Computer, electrical & optical||1.5|
|Other manufactured products||1.1|
|Product group||Percentage change|
|Tobacco & alcohol||0.1|
|Clothing, textiles & leather||1.2|
|Paper & printing||0.0|
|Chemicals & pharmaceuticals||-0.8|
|Metal, machinery & equipment||-0.1|
|Computer, electrical & optical||-0.1|
|Other manufactured products||0.0|
Factory gate prices rose 1.2% in the year to May, compared with a rise of 0.9% in the year to April. The price index was unchanged between April and May, compared with a fall of 0.2% between March and April. The main downward movements on the month were a 1.6% decrease in petroleum and a 0.8% fall in chemicals & pharmaceutical products, offset by increases in the price of clothing, textiles & leather (1.2%) food products (0.5%) and tobacco & alcohol products (0.1%) (Table C).
Petroleum product prices fell 1.6% between April and May, up from a fall of 3.2% between March and April. In the year to May prices fell 2.9%, up from a fall of 4.6% last month.
Chemicals & pharmaceutical product prices fell 0.8% between April and May, up from a fall of 0.9% between March and April. In the year to May prices fell 1.3%, down from a fall of 0.9% last month.
Clothing, textiles & leather product prices rose 1.2% between April and May and rose 2.2% in the year to May. The monthly rise was mainly due to wearing apparel, for example underwear, and leather and related products, for example luggage.
Food product prices rose 0.5% between April and May and rose 4.6% in the year to May, as shown in Tables B and C. The monthly rise was mainly due to dairy and meat products.
Tobacco and alcohol product prices rose 0.1% between April and May and rose 3.4% in the year to May. Tobacco prices were unchanged between April and May and rose 7.9% in the year to May. Alcohol prices rose 0.2% between April and May and rose 0.9% in the year to May.
Core factory gate prices, which exclude the more volatile food, beverages, tobacco and petroleum product prices, giving a measure of the underlying factory gate inflation, rose 0.8% in the year to May. Between April and May, core factory gate inflation rose 0.1%. This index is not affected by changes in excise duty.
Since autumn 2011 the price of materials and fuels purchased by UK manufacturing industry (input prices) fell quite rapidly from an annual inflation of around 18% to deflation (prices lower than they were in the same month of the previous year) of around 2% in the middle of 2012 (Figure D). Over this period core input inflation (purchases by manufacturing industries other than the more volatile food, beverages, tobacco and petroleum industries) fell at similiar levels.
Looking at the more recent data (Table D), the key movements in the year to May were as follows:
The total input price index rose 2.2%, compared with a fall of 0.1% in the year to April.
The core input price index saw a rise of 1.9%, compared with a rise of 1.3% in the year to April.
Between April and May:
In seasonally adjusted terms, (see Table D) the input price index for the manufacturing industry excluding the food, beverages, tobacco & petroleum industries fell 0.1% between April and May, up from a fall of 0.4% between March and April.
The total input price index fell 0.3%, compared with a fall of 2.3% between March and April. The total input price index saw falls in most of the indices with the biggest decreases from fuels (2.0%), crude oil (0.6%) and imported metals (1.4%). These were partially offset with a rise of 1.1% in the price of home produced foods and a 0.7% increase in the price of imported food products (see Table F).
|Materials & fuels purchased||Excluding food, beverages, tobacco & petroleum industries|
|1 month||12 months||1 month||12 month||1 month|
NSA: Not seasonally adjusted
Table E and Figure E show the percentage change in the price of the main commodities groups over the year and their contributions to the total input index. Table F and Figure F show the same for the monthly input prices.
|Product group||Percentage change|
|Fuel incl. CCL||7.9|
|Home food materials||19.2|
|Imported food materials||4.1|
|Other home-prod. materials||0.0|
|Imported parts & equipment||2.9|
|Other imported materials||2.6|
|Product group||Percentage change|
|Fuel incl. CCL||-2.0|
|Home food materials||1.1|
|Imported food materials||0.7|
|Other home-prod. materials||-0.6|
|Imported parts & equipment||-0.1|
|Other imported materials||0.1|
The overall input index for all manufacturing, that is the price of materials and fuels purchased by manufacturers, rose 2.2% in the year to May, compared with a fall of 0.1% in the year to April.
The input index fell 0.3% between April and May, compared with a fall of 2.3% between March and April. The main downward contributions to the monthly fall in the price index were from fuels, crude oil and imported metals. The main upward contributions came from home produced food and imported food products (see Table F and Figure F).
The index for fuels fell 2.0% between April and May and rose 7.9% in the year to May. Electricity prices for 2013 have been slightly above 2012 but below the highs of 2009. Gas prices have started to fall following unusually cold weather earlier in 2013.
The index for crude oil fell 0.6% between April and May and fell 4.0% in the year to May.
The index for imported metals fell 1.4% between April and May and fell 3.8% in the year to May.
The index for home produced food rose 1.1% between April and May and rose 19.2% in the year to May.
The index for imported food rose 0.7% between April and May and rose 4.1% in the year to May (Tables E and F).
The core input price index in seasonally adjusted terms fell 0.1% between April and May. The unadjusted index fell 0.4% between April and May and rose 1.9% in the year to May.
For this bulletin reference tables 8R and 9R (232 Kb Excel sheet) highlight revisions to movements in price indices previously published in last month’s statistical bulletin. These are mainly caused by changes to the most recent estimates, as more price quotes are received, and revisions to seasonal adjustment factors, which are re-estimated every month. The headline figures for output prices have small downward revisions in April 2013 and there are small revisions for headline input prices in February and March 2013. These revisions were mainly caused by quality adjustments due to late data.
|Revisions between first publication and estimates twelve months later|
|Value in last period||Average over the last 5 years||Average over the last 5 years without regard to sign (average absolute revision)|
|Total output: 12 months||1.2||-0.11||0.18|
|Total output: 1 month||0.0||0.03||0.10|
|Total input: 12 months||2.2||0.42*||0.69*|
|Total input: 1 month||-0.3||0.16*||0.40*|
Revisions to data provide one indication of the reliability of key indicators. The above table shows summary information on the size and direction of the revisions which have been made to the data covering a five year period. A statistical test has been applied to the average revision to find out if it is statistically significantly different from zero. An asterisk (*) shows that the test is significant.
The table presents a summary of the differences between the first estimates published between November 2006 and October 2011 and the estimates published 12 months later. These numbers include the effect of the reclassification onto SIC 2007.
Spreadsheets giving revisions triangles of estimates for all months from January 1998 through to January 2013 and the calculations behind the averages in the table are available in the reference table area of the ONS website;
From March 2013, ONS stopped producing the PPI records within the monthly statistical bulletins. These data are available separately on the ONS website. (89 Kb Excel sheet)
Article about rebasing the PPI and SPPI onto 2010=100
An article outlining plans to rebase the producer prices index and services producer price index, at the end of 2013, can be found on the ONS website.
Quality and Methodology Information
A Quality and Methodology Information (QMI) (95.6 Kb Pdf) paper for the PPI describes in detail the intended uses of the statistics presented in this publication, their general quality and the methods used to produce them.
Producer Price Index and Services Producer Prices: implementation of SIC 2007
Producer Prices has implemented the change to the Standard Industrial Classification 2007 (SIC 2007). The most significant change to PPI output prices involves the reclassification of ‘recovered secondary raw materials’ and ‘publishing’. These are no longer classified in the manufacturing sector, but are classified under services. In addition to this, a new SIC division, ‘repair, installation and maintenance of machinery and equipment’ has been created. Under SIC 2003 these activities were classified within the output of manufacturing, but as part of the specific industries where this activity took place.
Fundamental changes have been made to the classification of the PPI Trade surveys, Import Price indices (IPI) and Export Price Indices (EPI). As part of the reclassification project the classification of these trade surveys have become compliant with Eurostat’s Short Term Statistics Regulation. The collection of IPI and EPI will now be on an SIC basis, a switch from the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) and Combined Nomenclature (CN) previously used. PPI input prices are heavily dependent on IPI.
For further information on the changes and impact of the SIC 2007 on prices please see the Economic and Labour Market Review for December 2010 (84.1 Kb Pdf) .
Any comments about this work and its impact on PPI please contact Producer Price Index Operations on +44 (0)1633 45 6628 or email PPI.
Relevance to users
Index numbers shown in the main text of this bulletin are on a net sector basis. The index for any sector relates only to transactions between that sector and other sectors, sales and purchases within sectors are excluded. However, the more detailed figures shown in reference tables 4 and 6 (232 Kb Excel sheet) are on a gross basis; that is, intra industry sales and purchases are included in each of these indices.
Indices relate to average prices for a month. The full effect of a price change occurring part way through any month will only be reflected in the following month’s index.
All index numbers exclude VAT. Excise duty (on cigarettes, manufactured tobacco, alcoholic liquor and petroleum products) are included, except where labelled otherwise. Since PPIs exclude VAT, they are not affected by the increase in the standard rate of VAT to 20% from 4 January 2011.
The detailed input indices of prices of materials and fuels purchased by industry (reference table 6) (232 Kb Excel sheet) do not include the climate change levy (CCL). This is because each industry can, in practice, pay its own rate for the various forms of energy, depending on the various negotiated discounts and exemptions that apply.
Common pitfalls in interpreting series
Expectations of accuracy and reliability in sample surveys are often too high. Revisions and sampling variability are inevitable consequences of the trade off between timeliness, accuracy and the burden on respondents. Details of sampling variability are included elsewhere in this bulletin.
Very few statistical revisions arise as a result of ‘errors’ in the popular sense of the word. All estimates, by definition, are subject to statistical ‘error’ but, in this context, the word refers to the uncertainty in any process or calculation that uses sampling, estimation or modelling. Most revisions reflect either the adoption of new statistical techniques or the incorporation of new information which allows the statistical error of previous estimates to be reduced. Only rarely are there avoidable ‘errors’ such as human or system failures, and such mistakes are made quite clear when they are discovered and corrected.
Definitions and explanations
Definitions found within the main statistical bulletin are listed here:
A measure of the average level of prices, quantities or other measured characteristics, relative to their level for a defined reference period of location. It is expressed as a percentage above or below, but relative to, the base index of 100.
Seasonal adjustment aids interpretation by removing effects associated with the time of the year or the arrangement of the calendar, which could obscure movements of interest. Seasonal adjustment removes regular variation from a time series. Regular variation includes effects due to month lengths, different activity near particular events, such as bank holidays and leap years.
All characteristics that determine the price of the products - including quantity of units sold, transport provided, rebates, service conditions, guarantee conditions and destination - are taken into account.
The appropriate price is the basic price, which excludes VAT and similar deductible taxes directly linked to turnover, as well as all duties and taxes on the goods and services invoiced by the unit, whereas any subsidies on products received by the producer are added.
Transport costs are included but only as part of the product specification.
An actual transaction price and not a list price is given to show the true development of price movements.
The output price index takes into account the quality changes in products.
The price collected in period t refers to orders booked during period t (time of the order), not when the commodities leave the factory gates.
For output prices on the non-domestic market, the price is calculated at national frontiers, FOB (free on board). This means that the seller pays for transportation of the goods to the port of shipment, plus loading costs, and the buyer pays freight, insurance, unloading costs and transportation from the port of destination to the factory.
Figures for the latest two months are provisional and the latest five months are subject to revisions in light of (a) late and revised respondent data and (b), for the seasonally adjusted series; revisions to seasonal adjustment factors are re-estimated every month. A routine seasonal adjustment review is normally conducted in the autumn each year.
Every five years, producer price indices are rebased, and their weights updated to reflect changes in the industry. The article (51.5 Kb Pdf) referred to in background note 1, informs users about work underway to rebase PPIs from a 2005=100 basis to a 2010=100 basis, and update the weights. PPIs will move to a 2010=100 basis from autumn 2013. More information about the impact of rebasing will be published as the project progresses and will be drawn to users attention in the regular statistical bulletin.
The complete run of data in the tables of this bulletin are also available to view and download in other electronic formats free of charge using the Office for National Statistics Datasets and Reference Table service (if you want the data associated with this bulletin click into Download data in this release option). Users can download the complete release in a choice of zipped formats or view and download their own selections of individual series.
Details of the policy governing the release of new data are available from the Media Relations Office. A list of the names of those given pre-publication access to the contents of this bulletin is available on the Producer Price Index: Pre-Release Access List.
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|Chris Jenkins||+44 (0)1633 455474||Business Price Statistics, ONSfirstname.lastname@example.org|