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Population by Country of Birth and Nationality Report, August 2013 This product is designated as National Statistics

Released: 29 August 2013 Download PDF

Foreword

This report outlines the latest population estimates for the UK by country of birth and nationality, covering the period from 2004 up to the latest data for the year ending December 2012. The report discusses how these figures have changed over this period, both regionally and for the UK as a whole. It also highlights any statistically significant changes over the past two years in the resident population of the UK.

Key Findings

  • In 2012, 1 in 8 (12.4%) of the usual resident population of the UK were born abroad. This compares to 1 in 11 (8.9%) in 2004.

  • In 2012, 1 in 13 (7.8%) of the usual resident population of the UK had non-British nationality. This compares to 1 in 20 (5.0%) in 2004.

  • India is the most common non-UK country of birth in 2012. 729,000 usual residents of the UK were born in India (9.5% of the total number of non-UK born residents in the UK).

  • Polish is the most common non-British nationality in 2012. 700,000 usual residents of the UK have Polish nationality (14.4% of the total number of non-British nationals resident in the UK).

Introduction

This report outlines the latest estimates of the resident population of the UK, countries of the UK, and regions of England, by country of birth and nationality, for calendar year 2012 . It also discusses how these figures have changed since 2004, both regionally and for the UK as a whole. The report also focuses on statistically significant changes in the population between 2010 and 2012.

The report should be read alongside the published tables of Population by Country of Birth and Nationality January 2012 to December 2012 (263.5 Kb Excel sheet)  and the underlying datasheets (2.08 Mb Excel sheet) .

The data used is from the Annual Population Survey (APS). The APS, which began in 2004, is a continuous survey, comprising the Labour Force Survey (LFS), supplemented by sample boosts in England, Wales, and Scotland to ensure small areas are sufficiently sampled. The APS is a survey of households in the UK, so does not include communal establishments. The APS data in this report is the latest available. However, the APS is due to be reweighted next year following the results of the 2011 Census, and so figures for time periods quoted in this report may differ in later publications due to this reweighting exercise.

It is important to note that all figures contained in this report refer to estimates from the APS and do not refer to any data collected as part of the 2011 Census. ONS have released a report on detailed country of birth and nationality analysis from the 2011 Census of England and Wales. Findings from this report are similar to findings from the APS data. The census report stated that 13.0% of the usually resident population of England and Wales was born abroad, and 7.4% were non-British nationals. It also stated that the most common non-British nationality is Polish. Please see the glossary for more information on the differences between the APS and census.

Further data from the 2011 Census is available on the Census Data section of the ONS website.

ONS has also released a statistical bulletin titled Births in England and Wales by Parents’ Country of Birth, 2012 in August 2013.

Note: Country of birth refers to the country that a person was born in and cannot change. Nationality refers to the nationality stated by a respondent when they are interviewed and can be subject to change.

1. What do the latest figures show?

Table 1 shows estimates of UK residents’ country of birth by broad country group for calendar year 2012.

Table 1: Estimate of the resident population of the UK by country of birth, 2012

Figures in thousands
UK born Non-UK Born Republic of Ireland EU13 EU8 EU26 Non-EU
54,484 7,679 403 955 1,014 2,609 5,071

Table source: Office for National Statistics

Table notes:

  1. EU13: This is shown only on the country of birth tables. It includes the countries of the EU, other than the UK and Republic of Ireland, as constituted between 1 January 1995 and 1 May 2004 (i.e. Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and Sweden).

  2. EU8: These are the eight Central and Eastern European countries that acceded to the EU on 1 May 2004 (Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia).
  3. EU26: Between 2004 and 2006 this grouping was known as the EU24 and included the countries in the EU13, the Republic of Ireland, EU8, Malta and Cyprus. In 2007 this grouping became the EU26, to include Bulgaria and Romania, who acceded to the EU on 1 January 2007.

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Table 1 shows that, in 2012, 1 in 8 (12.4%) of the population of the UK were born abroad (7,679,000). Approximately two thirds of the non-UK born population were born outside of the EU (5,071,000).

Table 2 shows the estimates of residents’ nationality by broad country group for calendar year 2012.

Table 2: Estimate of the resident population of the UK by nationality, 2012

Figures in thousands
British Non-British EU14 EU8 EU26 Non-EU
57,317 4,852 1,092 1,074 2,343 2,509

Table source: Office for National Statistics

Table notes:

  1. Because people born in Northern Ireland have the right to British and/or Irish nationality/citizenship, the two nationalities have been combined for Northern Ireland in the nationality tables in this report. Non-British consists of all other nationalities except British, apart from Northern Ireland where it consists of all other nationalities except British and Irish.
  2. EU14: This is shown only on the nationality tables. It is all those countries in the EU13 grouping plus the Republic of Ireland.
  3. EU8: These are the eight Central and Eastern European countries that acceded to the EU on 1 May 2004 (Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia).
  4. EU26: Between 2004 and 2006 this grouping was known as the EU24 and included the countries in the EU13, the Republic of Ireland, EU8, Malta and Cyprus. In 2007 this grouping became the EU26, to include Bulgaria and Romania, who acceded to the EU on 1 January 2007.

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Table 2 shows that, in 2012, approximately 1 in 13 (7.8%) of the population of the UK had non-British nationality (4,852,000). Just over half of non-British nationals (2,509,000) hold non-EU nationality.

The difference between the non-EU country of birth estimate and the non-EU nationality estimate suggests that nearly half of those residents born outside of the EU actually hold EU nationality. Further comparisons on those born abroad with those who have non-British nationality, shows that 3,156,000 people born abroad have British nationality.

For comparison, table 3 shows the estimates of UK residents’ country of birth by broad country group for the countries of the UK.

Table 3: Estimate of the resident population of the countries of the UK by country of birth, 2012

Figures in thousands
Country UK born Non-UK Born Republic of Ireland EU13 EU8 EU26 Non-EU
England 45,159 7,024 335 858 884 2,294 4,730
Wales 2,848 156 9 26 23 64 92
Scotland 4,804 375 19 59 72 163 213
Northern Ireland 1,673 124 39 11 35 88 36

Table source: Office for National Statistics

Table notes:

  1. EU13: This is shown only on the country of birth tables. It includes the countries of the EU, other than the UK and Republic of Ireland, as constituted between 1 January 1995 and 1 May 2004 (i.e. Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and Sweden).
  2. EU8: These are the eight Central and Eastern European countries that acceded to the EU on 1 May 2004 (Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia).
  3. EU26: Between 2004 and 2006 this grouping was known as the EU24 and included the countries in the EU13, the Republic of Ireland, EU8, Malta and Cyprus. In 2007 this grouping became the EU26, to include Bulgaria and Romania, who acceded to the EU on 1 January 2007.

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England has the highest proportion of non-UK born usual residents (13.5%), which is higher than the UK as a whole. Wales has the lowest proportion of non-UK born usual residents (5.2%). Scotland and Northern Ireland have similar proportions (7.2 % and 6.9% respectively).

For comparison, table 4 shows the estimates of UK residents’ nationality by broad country group for the countries of the UK.

Table 4: Estimate of the resident population of the countries of the UK by nationality, 2012

Figures in thousands
Country British Non-British EU14 EU8 EU26 Non-EU
England 47,822 4,366 971 931 2,063 2,304
Wales 2,906 98 23 25 52 47
Scotland 4,894 285 61 80 152 133
Northern Ireland 1,728 70 4 38 45 25

Table source: Office for National Statistics

Table notes:

  1. Because people born in Northern Ireland have the right to British and/or Irish nationality/citizenship, the two nationalities have been combined for Northern Ireland in the nationality tables in this report. Non-British consists of all other nationalities except British, apart from Northern Ireland where it consists of all other nationalities except British and Irish.
  2. EU14: This is shown only on the nationality tables. It is all those countries in the EU13 grouping plus the Republic of Ireland.
  3. EU8: These are the eight Central and Eastern European countries that acceded to the EU on 1 May 2004 (Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia).
  4. EU26: Between 2004 and 2006 this grouping was known as the EU24 and included the countries in the EU13, the Republic of Ireland, EU8, Malta and Cyprus. In 2007 this grouping became the EU26, to include Bulgaria and Romania, who acceded to the EU on 1 January 2007.

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England has the highest proportion of non-British nationals (8.4%), which is higher than the UK as a whole. Wales and Northern Ireland have similar proportions (3.3% and 3.9% respectively). The proportion of non-British nationals residing in Scotland is 5.5%.

More detail on the population of the countries of the UK by country of birth and nationality can be found in section 2 below.

2. What changes have occurred over the period 2004 to 2012?

a) UK

Figure 1 shows changes in the population of the UK by non-UK country of birth from 2004 to 2012.

Figure 1: Estimate of the resident population of the UK by non-UK country of Birth, 2004 to 2012

Figure 1: Estimate of the resident population of the UK by non-UK country of Birth, 2004 to 2012
Source: Annual Population Survey (APS) - Office for National Statistics

Notes:

  1. EU13: This is shown only on the country of birth tables. It includes the countries of the EU, other than the UK and Republic of Ireland, as constituted between 1 January 1995 and 1 May 2004 (i.e. Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and Sweden).
  2. EU8: These are the eight Central and Eastern European countries that acceded to the EU on 1 May 2004 (Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia).
  3. EU26: Between 2004 and 2006 this grouping was known as the EU24 and included the countries in the EU13, the Republic of Ireland, EU8, Malta and Cyprus. In 2007 this grouping became the EU26, to include Bulgaria and Romania, who acceded to the EU on 1 January 2007.

Download chart

In 2012, approximately 1 in 8 (12.4%) of the usually resident population of the UK were born outside of the UK. This equates to 7,679,000 residents. By comparison, in 2004, approximately 1 in 11 (8.9%) of the usually resident population of the UK were born outside of the UK. This equates to 5,233,000 residents. Therefore, there has been a statistically significant increase of 2,446,000 non-UK born usual residents between 2004 and 2012.

Comparing 2012 data with estimates for 2010 and 2011, the increase in the non-UK born population of the UK (from 7,139,000 to 7,679,000) between 2010 and 2012 is statistically significant. This increase has been driven by residents born in the EU, as there were also statistically significant increases between 2010 and 2012 in the non-UK born population from the EU13 (864,000 to 955,000), the EU8 (805,000 to 1,014,000), and the EU26 (2,283,000 to 2,609,000). There were no statistically significant changes between 2011 and 2012.

Focussing on usual residents born outside of the UK, the estimated population born in the EU8 increased significantly between 2004 and 2008 (from 167,000 to 689,000). This increase was driven by accession and the widened opportunities for EU8 nationals to live and work in the UK.

Figure 2 shows changes in the population of the UK by non-British nationality from 2004 to 2012.

Figure 2: Estimate of the resident population of the UK by non-British nationality, 2004 to 2012

Figure 2: Estimate of the resident population of the UK by non-British nationality, 2004 to 2012
Source: Annual Population Survey (APS) - Office for National Statistics

Notes:

  1. EU14: This is shown only on the nationality tables. It is all those countries in the EU13 grouping plus the Republic of Ireland.
  2. EU8: These are the eight Central and Eastern European countries that acceded to the EU on 1 May 2004 (Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia).
  3. EU26: Between 2004 and 2006 this grouping was known as the EU24 and included the countries in the EU13, the Republic of Ireland, EU8, Malta and Cyprus. In 2007 this grouping became the EU26, to include Bulgaria and Romania, who acceded to the EU on 1 January 2007.

Download chart

In 2012, approximately 1 in 13 (7.8%) of the usually resident population of the UK held non-British nationality. This equates to 4,852,000 residents. By comparison, in 2004, approximately 1 in 20 (5.0%) of the usually resident population of the UK were non-British nationals. This equates to 2,946,000 residents. Therefore, there has been a statistically significant increase of 1,906,000 non-British nationals between 2004 and 2012.

Comparing 2012 data with estimates for 2010 and 2011, the increase in non-British nationals residing in the UK (4,460,000 to 4,852,000) between 2010 and 2012 is statistically significant. This increase has been driven by nationals of EU countries as there were also statistically significant increases between 2010 and 2012 in the non-British national population from the EU8 (829,000 to 1,074,000) and the EU26 (2,003,000 to 2,343,000). There were no statistically significant changes between 2011 and 2012.

Revised population estimates for England and Wales for the period mid-2002 to mid-2010, have been published. These also show an increase in the usually resident population of EU8 nationals.

b) Countries of the UK

England

In 2012, 13.5% of the usually resident population of England were born outside of the UK. This equates to 7,024,000 residents. By comparison, in 2004, 9.8% of the usually resident population of England were born outside of the UK. This equates to 4,859,000 residents. Therefore, there has been a statistically significant increase of 2,165,000 non-UK born residents in England between 2004 and 2012.

Comparing 2012 data with estimates for 2010 and 2011, the increase in the non-UK born population in England (from 6,565,000 to 7,024,000) between 2010 and 2012 is statistically significant. There has been an increase in both residents born in the EU and outside of the EU. There were statistically significant increases between 2010 and 2012 in the non-UK born population from the EU13 (787,000 to 858,000), the EU8 (688,000 to 884,000), and the EU26 (2,020,000 to 2,294,000). The non-EU born resident population increased significantly from 4,545,000 in 2010 to 4,730,000 in 2012. There were no statistically significant changes between 2011 and 2012.

In 2012, 8.4% of the usually resident population of England held non-British nationality. This equates to 4,366,000 residents. By comparison, in 2004, 5.5% of the usually resident population of England were non-British nationals. This equated to 2,711,000 residents. Therefore, there has been a statistically significant increase of 1,655,000 non-British nationals residing in England between 2004 and 2012.

Comparing 2012 data with estimates for 2010 and 2011, the increase in non-British nationals residing in England (4,028,000 to 4,366,000) between 2010 and 2012 is statistically significant. This increase has been driven by nationals of EU countries as there were also statistically significant increases between 2010 and 2012 in the non-British national population from the EU8 (709,000 to 931,000) and the EU26 (1,765,000 to 2,063,000). There were no statistically significant changes between 2011 and 2012.

The following three sections consider whether these general patterns of non-UK born and non-British nationality are reproduced across the other UK constituent countries.

Please note: The smaller populations of Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland make calculating reliable estimates more difficult. Users are advised to be cautious when making inferences from these estimates.

Figure 3 shows changes in the non-UK born and non-British nationally resident population of Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, from 2004 to 2012.

Figure 3: Estimate of the resident population of Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland by non-UK country of birth and non-British nationality, 2004 to 2012

Figure 3: Estimate of the resident population of Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland by non-UK country of birth and non-British nationality, 2004 to 2012
Source: Annual Population Survey (APS) - Office for National Statistics

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Wales

In 2012, 5.2% of the usually resident population of Wales were born outside of the UK (156,000). 92,000 of those non-UK born residents were born outside of the EU (59.0%). 3.3% of the usually resident population held non-British nationality (98,000), and 47,000 of those held non-EU nationality (48.0%). There was a statistically significant increase in the population of EU26 nationals (43,000 to 52,000) between 2010 and 2012.

Scotland

In 2012, 7.2% of the usually resident population of Scotland were born outside of the UK (375,000). 213,000 of those non-UK born residents were born outside of the EU (56.8%). 5.5% of the usually resident population of Scotland held non-British nationality (285,000), and 133,000 of those held non-EU nationality (46.7%). There were statistically significant increases in the non-UK born population and the non-British national population between 2010 and 2012, as well as between 2011 and 2012. The non-UK born population increased from 326,000 in 2010, to 340,000 in 2011, to 375,000 in 2012. The non-British national population increased from 248,000 in 2010, to 259,000 in 2011, to 285,000 in 2012.

Northern Ireland

In 2012, 6.9% of the usually resident population of Northern Ireland were born outside of the UK (124,000). 36,000 of those non-UK born residents were born outside of the EU (29.0%). 3.9% of the usually resident population held non-British nationality (70,000), and 25,000 of those held non-EU nationality (35.7%) . There was a statistically significant increase in the non-UK born population (99,000 to 124,000) between 2010 and 2012. This increase has been driven by statistically significant increases in the population of those born in the Republic of Ireland (26,000 to 39,000) and the EU26 (64,000 to 88,000).

Please note: People born in Northern Ireland have the right to British and/or Irish nationality/citizenship.

3. Which countries are non-UK born residents and non-British nationals from?

In 2012, India was the most common non-UK country of birth. 729,000 residents of the UK were born in India (9.5% of the total number of non-UK born residents in the UK). By comparison, in 2004, 502,000 residents of the UK were born in India (9.6% of the total number of non-UK born residents in the UK). Therefore, there has been a statistically significant increase of 227,000 Indian born residents in the UK between 2004 and 2012.

In 2012, the top 5 countries of birth for usual residents born outside the UK were India, Poland, Pakistan, Republic of Ireland, and Germany. Figure 4 shows the usual resident population in the UK for individuals born in these countries for the years 2008 to 2012.

Figure 4: Five most common countries of birth in the UK in 2012, 2008 to 2012

Figure 4: Five most common countries of birth in the UK in 2012, 2008 to 2012
Source: Annual Population Survey (APS) - Office for National Statistics

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Comparing 2012 data with estimates for 2010 and 2011, the increase in Polish born residents in the UK (532,000 to 646,000) between 2010 and 2012 is statistically significant. There were no statistically significant changes between 2011 and 2012.

In 2012, Polish was the most common non-British nationality. 700,000 residents in the UK have Polish nationality (14.4% of the total number of non-British nationals resident in the UK). By comparison, in 2004, 69,000 residents of the UK had Polish nationality (2.3% of the total number of non-British nationals resident in the UK). Therefore, there has been a statistically significant increase of 631,000 Polish nationals residing in the UK between 2004 and 2012.

In 2012, the top 5 non-British nationalities for usual residents in the UK were Polish, Indian, Republic of Ireland, Pakistan, and United States of America. Figure 5 shows the usual resident population in the UK for individuals with these nationalities in these countries for the years 2008 to 2012.

Figure 5: Five most common nationalities in the UK in 2012, 2008 to 2012

Figure 5: Five most common nationalities in the UK in 2012, 2008 to 2012
Source: Annual Population Survey (APS) - Office for National Statistics

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Comparing 2012 data with estimates for 2010 and 2011, the increase in Polish nationals resident in the UK (555,000 to 700,000) between 2010 and 2012 is statistically significant. By contrast, there has been a statistically significant decrease in the population of nationals of the Republic of Ireland between 2010 and 2012 (353,000 to 314,000), and 2011 and 2012 (351,000 to 314,000).

Comparing the difference between Polish born residents and Polish nationals in the UK (646,000 to 700,000), and Indian born and Indian nationals (729,000 to 348,000), reflects that those born in Poland do not change their nationality to remain here, whereas for Indian born (and non-EU born in general) there is an incentive to acquire British citizenship.

4. Where do people settle?

Table 5 shows the estimates proportion of non-UK born and non-British nationals residing in the regions of England in 2004, and in 2012.

Table 5: Five most common nationalities in the UK in 2012, 2008 to 2012

Region of England Estimated proportion born outside of the UK (% of total regional population) Estimated proportion on non-British nationals (% of total regional population)
  2004 2012 2004 2012
North East 3.3 4.8 1.8 2.8
North West 5.1 7.8 2.7 4.9
Yorkshire and The Humber 5.9 8.9 2.8 5.8
East Midlands 6.2 9.5 3.2 5.9
West Midlands 7.6 11.2 4 6.4
East 7.2 10.9 4.1 7.1
London 29.6 35.9 17.7 22.4
South East 8.3 11.7 4.5 7.3
South West 5 7.5 2.5 4.5
England 9.8 13.5 5.5 8.4

Table source: Office for National Statistics

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London

In 2012, 36.8% of non-UK born residents, and 36.3% of non-British nationals in the UK lived in London (2,828,000 and 1,763,000 respectively). Comparing 2012 data with estimates for 2010 and 2011, the increase in non-UK born residents (2,684,000 to 2,828,000) between 2010 and 2012 is statistically significant. This has been driven by statistically significant increases in the EU8 (193,000 to 227,000) and EU26 (701,000 to 769,000).

The increase in non-UK born residents in London is similar to the non-British nationality increase. Again, comparing 2012 data with estimates for 2010 and 2011, the increase in non-British nationality residents (1,663,000 to 1,763,000) between 2010 and 2012 is statistically significant. This has been driven by statistically significant increases in the EU8 (197,000 to 234,000) and EU26 (687,000 to 775,000). There were no statistically significant changes between 2011 and 2012.

Other Regions of England

Excluding London, in 2012 the South East had the highest proportion of non-UK born residents (11.7% or 998,000), and non-British nationals (7.3% or 625,000).

Comparing 2012 data with estimates for 2010 and 2011, there has been a statistically significant increases in the non-UK born population residing in Yorkshire and The Humber (415,000 to 472,000), the West Midlands (547,000 to 610,000) the East (558,000 to 636,000), and the South East (919,000 to 998,000) between 2010 and 2012. These have been driven by statistically significant increases in those born within the EU, with the exception of the West Midlands, that also saw a significant increase of those born outside the EU.

There have also been statistically significant increases in the number of non-British nationals residing in Yorkshire and The Humber (253,000 to 307,000), the East (361,000 to 414,000), and the South East (546,000 to 625,000). These have been due to a statistically significant increase in population of those with EU nationality. The South West has seen a statistically significant increase in the number of residents with non EU nationality (89,000 to 111,000) between 2010 and 2012.

Glossary

2011 Census v Annual Population Survey

This report focuses on data from the Annual Population Survey (APS). There are some differences between the APS and the 2011 Census.

1. It should be noted that the APS:-

  • excludes students in halls who do not have a UK resident parent

  • excludes people in most other types of communal establishments (e.g. hotels, boarding houses, hostels, mobile home sites, etc)

The 2011 Census included all usual residents in England and Wales.

2. The APS is a sample survey. There are approximately 320,000 persons per dataset.

3. The 2011 Census data refers to a point in time (27 March 2011), whereas the APS dataset relates to a period of one year (January 2012 to December 2012).

Country of Birth

The country a person was born in.

EU26

Between 2004 and 2006 this grouping was known as the EU24 and included the countries in the EU13, the Republic of Ireland, EU8, Malta and Cyprus. In 2007 this grouping became the EU26, to include Bulgaria and Romania, who acceded to the EU on 1 January 2007.

EU13

This is shown only on the country of birth tables. It includes the countries of the EU, other than the UK and Republic of Ireland, as constituted between 1 January 1995 and 1 May 2004 (i.e. Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and Sweden).

EU14

This is shown only on the nationality tables. It is all those countries in the EU13 grouping plus the Republic of Ireland.

EU8

These are the eight Central and Eastern European countries that acceded to the EU on 1 May 2004 (Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia).

Nationality

Nationality refers to that stated by the respondent during the interview. It is possible that an individual’s nationality may change. If a respondent has dual nationality, only the first one is recorded.

Non-British Nationality for Northern Ireland

Because people born in Northern Ireland have the right to British and/or Irish nationality/citizenship, the two nationalities have been combined for Northern Ireland in the nationality tables in this report. Non-British consists of all other nationalities except British, apart from Northern Ireland where it consists of all other nationalities except British and Irish.

Background notes

  1. A National Statistics publication            
               
    National Statistics are produced to high professional standards set out in the Code of Practice for Official Statistics. They are produced free from any political interference.

    The United Kingdom Statistics Authority has designated these statistics as National Statistics, in accordance with the Statistics and Registration Service Act 2007 and signifying compliance with the Code of Practice for Official Statistics.            
               
    Designation can be broadly interpreted to mean that the statistics:

    • meet identified user needs;

    • are well explained and readily accessible;

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    Once statistics have been designated as National Statistics it is a statutory requirement that the Code of Practice shall continue to be observed.

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    To view this licence, go to the national archives website or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU

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