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Statistical bulletin: International Trade in Services, 2010 This product is designated as National Statistics

Released: 27 March 2012 Download PDF

Correction

Production errors were discovered in the International Trade in Services 2010 Statistical Bulletin originally published on 27 March 2012.  

In the key findings section, on the second paragraph, the figure for UK imports of services for 2009 that read `£41,460 million’, should have been `£41,560 million’. Also, on the seventh paragraph, the word million is missing from the value of `£2,106’.  The sentence should read `UK film exports increased to £2,106 million in 2010 compared with £1,476 million in 2009, a rise of 43 per cent’. 

These errors have now been corrected.

ONS apologises for any inconvenience caused.

Key findings

  • UK exports of services continued to increase from £84,120 million in 2009 to a new high of £89,523 million in 2010, an increase of six per cent.
  • UK imports of services marginally increased from £41,560 million in 2009 to £42,074 million in 2010.
  • The UK balance attributed to trade in services increased from a surplus of £42,561 million in 2009 to a surplus of £47,449 million in 2010, an increase of 11 per cent.
  • In 2010, UK exports remain dominated by professional, scientific and technical services, accounting for 31 per cent of the total.
  • In 2010, there was an increase in UK exports in information and communication services (up nine per cent) along with wholesale and retail services (up 26 per cent).
  • Despite overall imports into the UK in 2010 remaining relatively constant, there was a 14 per cent increase of services within the information and communication activities industry sector. This industry sector rose to joint first position for UK imports in 2010, together with the professional, scientific and technical activities industry sector.
  • In 2010, UK exports of film services continued to outweigh UK imports. UK film exports increased to £2,106 million in 2010 compared with £1,476 million in 2009, a rise of 43 per cent.
  • UK film exports to Europe increased from £695 million in 2009 to £1,224 million in 2010. Europe became the primary destination for UK exports of film services in 2010, compared with the Americas in 2009.

Summary of International Trade in Services (ITIS) 2010

The 2010 International Trade in Services publication provides a detailed breakdown of annual trade in services estimates, analysing data by product, industry and country. The data are sourced from the Office for National Statistics comprehensive surveys into international trade.

The International Trade in Services survey is a key source of UK trade data. It is important to note that the survey does not contain data for transportation, travel and banking industries. This data is obtained from other sources such as the International Passenger Survey and the Bank of England. As a result, these industries are excluded from the figures reported in this publication. Estimates for the overall level of trade in services, including these industries, are published in the Office for National Statistics Pink Book publication.

Section A: Total International Trade in Services (excluding travel, transport and banking)

Over a period of 30 years, the UK economy has witnessed a shift to a more service based economy, with 75 per cent of output now attributed to services, compared with 15 per cent attributed to production and 10 per cent attributed to manufacturing. 

Over the last decade, the balance between exports of services and goods has continued to tip towards services. The share of UK exports of services has risen from 30 per cent to 39 per cent (compared with 25 per cent, 30 years ago), whilst the share of UK exports of goods has declined from 70 per cent to 61 per cent (compared with 75 per cent, 30 years ago).

Time Series Analysis: Exports

Figure AA1 Time series for exports

Figure AA1 Time series for exports

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Total exports from the UK increased by six per cent from £84,120 million in 2009 to £89,523 million in 2010.  This is the highest reported value displayed in this time series. Trade in services exports have risen considerably over time, having more than doubled between 2001 and 2010.

Time Series Analysis: Imports 

Figure AA2 - Time Series for Imports

Figure AA2 - Time Series for Imports

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Total imports to the UK remained relatively static from £41,560 million in 2009 to £42,074 million in 2010, an increase of one per cent. This is the highest reported value in this time series. UK imports of trade in services have risen considerably over time, having more than doubled between 2001 and 2010.

Notes for Section A: Total International Trade in Services (excluding travel, transport and banking)

  1. All values are current prices (see background notes).

Total International Trade in Services (excluding travel, transport and banking) analysed by continents and countries (refer to table A0)

This section shows key geographical findings for the total international trade in services (excluding travel, transport and banking) for exports, imports and balances for the UK. 

Figure AO UK ITIS Exports and Imports by continent, 2010

Figure AO UK ITIS Exports and Imports by continent, 2010

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Exports

Total exports of services from the UK increased by six per cent from £84,120 million in 2009 to £89,523 million in 2010.

Europe has continued to be the dominant customer for exports of services in 2010, accounting for 51 per cent of total UK exports of trade in services, rising from £43,801 million in 2009 to £45,262 million in 2010.

Within Europe, Switzerland attracted the largest proportion of total UK exports to Europe in 2010 (13 per cent). UK exports to Switzerland rose from £5,471 million in 2009 to £5,979 million in 2010, an increase of nine per cent. Germany and the Irish Republic contribute notably followed closely by the Netherlands and France.

UK exports of services to the Americas increased from £22,228 million in 2009 to £24,732 million in 2010, an increase of 11 per cent. Within the Americas, the USA remains the single most prominent destination of exports increasing from £17,744 million in 2009 to £19,411 million in 2010, a nine per cent increase. In 2010, the USA accounted for 22 per cent of total exports of services from the UK. 

Asia saw an increase in services of exports from the UK, from £12,834 million in 2009 to £14,137 million in 2010, an increase of 10 per cent. Within Asia, Saudi Arabia contributed the most significant increase, from £1,680 million in 2009 to £2,204 million in 2010, a 31 per cent increase.

Imports

Total imports of services remained relatively static at £42,074 million in 2010 up from £41,560 million in 2009.

Europe continued to be the main source of imports in 2010, accounting for 53 per cent of total UK imports of trade in services. They rose from £21,325 million in 2009 to £22,395 million in 2010.

Within Europe, Germany provided the largest proportion of total imports from Europe in 2010 (18 per cent). UK imports from Germany rose from £3,777 million in 2009 to £4,111 million in 2010, an increase of nine per cent.

Imports in services from the Americas decreased from £12,117 million in 2009 to £11,162 million in 2010, a decrease of eight per cent. Within the Americas, the USA remains the single largest country that imported to the UK. The USA represented 22 per cent of total imports of services into the UK, despite UK imports from the USA decreasing from £9,880 million in 2009 to £9,344 million in 2010.

Asia contributed to an increase in imports to the UK from £5,965 million in 2009 to £6,589 million in 2010, an increase of 10 per cent. Within Asia, Japan contributed the most towards the increase rising from £1,156 million in 2009 to £1,627 million in 2010, a 41 per cent increase.

Balances

Overall, the UK trade in services surplus has increased by 11 per cent from £42,561 million in 2009 to £47,449 million in 2010, a difference of £4,888 million.  

The Americas made the largest contribution to the rise in UK balance surplus, an increase of £3,459 million, which accounted for 71 per cent of the overall rise. Within the Americas, the USA continued to be the main driver, increasing from £7,864 million in 2009 to £10,067 million in 2010. 

Notes for Total International Trade in Services (excluding travel, transport and banking) analysed by continents and countries (refer to table A0)

  1. All values are current prices (see background notes).

Section B: Trade in services products: geographical analysis

This section illustrates UK trade in services exports, imports and balances broken down by prominent product groups. Each group is analysed by continent, making comparisons between 2009 and 2010.

Technical, trade related, operational leasing and other business services (refer to table B1)

The total value of UK exports of technical, trade-related, operational leasing and other business services in 2010 was £9,619 million, a decrease of five per cent on the £10,085 million figure reported in 2009. The total value of imports of technical, construction, operational leasing and other business services in 2010 was £3,414 million, a decrease of 20 per cent on the £4,249 million figure reported in 2009.

Exports

Figure B1 - Exports of technical, construction, operational leasing and other business services by continent, 2009 to 2010

Figure B1 - Exports of technical, construction, operational leasing and other business services by continent, 2009 to 2010

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The breakdown of UK exports of technical, construction, operational leasing and other business services, by continent, reported in 2010, were as follows:

  • Europe continued to be the primary destination for UK exports of technical and operational services with £3,315 million in 2010 compared with £3,601 million in 2009. Although this is a decrease of eight per cent, it still accounted for 34 per cent of total UK exports of technical and operational services in 2010.

  • Asia was the only continent to show an increase in the amount of these services exported from the UK, with £2,799 million in 2010 (compared with £2,663 million in 2009). Asia continued to be the second largest destination for UK exports of technical and operational services in 2010, accounting for 29 per cent of the total. 

  • UK exports to the Americas were reported at £1,953 million in 2010, compared with £1,991 million in 2009. The USA remained the main UK export destination within the Americas.  UK exports to the USA were reported at £1,435 million in 2010 (compared with £1,558 million in 2009), accounting for 15 per cent of total exports of these services. 

  • UK exports of these services to the rest of the world were reported as £1,552 million in 2010 (compared with £1,830 million in 2009), a decrease of 15 per cent and were largely driven by a decrease in UK exports of these services to Africa.  

Imports 

Figure B1 - Imports of technical, construction, operational leasing and other business services by continent, 2009 to 2010

Figure B1 - Imports of technical, construction, operational leasing and other business services by continent, 2009 to 2010

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The breakdown of UK imports by continent, reported in 2010, were as follows:

  • Europe was the primary source for UK imports of technical and operational services in 2010, with £1,741 million compared with £1,887 million in 2009. Europe accounted for 51 per cent of total of imports of technical, trade related, operational leasing and other business services.

  • Within Europe, the largest proportion of UK imports of these services can be attributed to Germany in 2010 (compared to France in 2009), with £504 million. This accounted for 15 per cent of the total UK imports of technical and operational services.

  • Asia, continued to be the second largest source for UK imports of technical and operational services in 2010, with £939 million  (compared with £1,101 million in 2009). Although this was a decrease of 15 per cent, it still accounted for 28 per cent of the total UK imports of these services in 2010.

  • UK imports from the Americas were reported at £445 million in 2010, compared with £618 million in 2009, a decrease of 28 per cent. The USA remained the main origin of UK imports of these services from the Americas, accounting for nine per cent.

  • UK imports from the rest of the world were reported as £290 million in 2010 (compared with £642 million in 2009), a decrease of 55 per cent and were largely driven by a decrease in UK imports of these services from Africa.

Balances

The total surplus balance (exports minus imports) of UK trade in services in 2010 was reported at £6,205 million, an increase of six per cent on the 2009 balance of technical, construction, operational leasing and other business services.

The breakdown of the UK balance of these services, by continent, reported in 2010, were as follows:

  • 30 per cent of the UK surplus was due to trade in technical, construction, operational leasing and other business services with Asia in 2010 (compared with 27 per cent in 2009). Asia was the largest contributor to the overall UK balance of these services. 

  • Europe accounted for 25 per cent of the UK surplus balance in this group of services in 2010. This was an eight per cent decrease compared with 2009.

  • The Americas accounted for 24 per cent of the UK surplus balance of technical and operational services, an increase of 10 per cent. This was mainly driven by percentage increases for Brazil. 

Professional, management consulting and Research and Development services analysed by continents and countries (refer to table B2)

The total value of UK exports of professional, management, consulting and research and development services in 2010 was £20,634 million (compared with £20,177 million in 2009). The total value of imports of professional, management consulting and research and development services was £12,024 million in 2010, an increase of five per cent on the £11,408 million recorded in 2009.

Exports

Figure B2 - Exports of professional, management consulting, research and development services by continent, 2009 to 2010

Figure B2 - Exports of professional, management consulting, research and development services by continent, 2009 to 2010

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The breakdown of UK exports of professional, management consulting and research and development services by continent, reported in 2010, were as follows:

  • Europe continued to be the primary destination for UK exports of professional services in 2010, with £11,200 million (compared with £11,497 million in 2009). This represented a decrease of three per cent and accounted for 54 per cent of the total exports of these services in 2010.

  • The Americas saw the largest increase of exports for professional services, from £5,489 million in 2009 to £6,098 million in 2010, an increase of 11 per cent. This increase can be largely attributed to the USA, with exports of £5,210 million in 2010 (compared with £4,604 million in 2009).

  • UK exports of professional services to Asia remained broadly static in 2010, recorded as £2,498 million in 2010 compared with £2,444 million in 2009.

Imports 

 

Figure B2 - Imports of professional, management consulting, research and development services by continent, 2009 to 2010

Figure B2 - Imports of professional, management consulting, research and development services by continent, 2009 to 2010

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The breakdown of UK imports of professional, management consulting and research and development services by continent, reported in 2010, were as follows:

  • Europe was the primary source of imported professional services in 2010, with £6,948 million in 2010, compared with £6,414 million in 2009. This was an increase of eight per cent and accounted for 58 per cent of the total imports of these services.

  • The Americas was the only continent to show a decrease in the amount imported to the UK, from £2,957 million in 2009 to £2,737 million in 2010. The USA was the single most prominent country with imports of £2,364 million in 2010, accounting for 20 per cent of total imports of these services to the UK. 

  • UK imports from Asia have risen from £1,582 million in 2009 to £1,775 million in 2010, an increase of 12 per cent. This was largely driven by an increase in UK imports of these services from Japan.  

Balances 

The total balance in 2010 was reported at £8,610 million, falling slightly when compared with the balance of £8,768 million reported in 2009.

 The breakdown of the UK balance of these services, by continent, reported in 2010, were as follows: 

  • Europe accounted for 49 per cent of the total UK balance of professional services, with a balance of £4,251 million in 2010, compared with £5,083 million in 2009. This was a decrease of 16 per cent, largely due to a decrease in the balance of UK trade in services with the Irish Republic, Luxembourg and Germany.

  • Within the Americas, the UK has the largest surplus balance with the USA, which increased by 43 per cent from £1,984 million in 2009 to £2,846 million in 2010. This was due to a 13 per cent increase in exports and a 10 per cent decrease in imports.

Merchanting, Other Trade-related services and Services between related enterprises analysed by continent (refer to table B3)

The total value of UK exports of merchanting, other trade-related services and services between related enterprises in 2010 was £17,254 million, an increase of 11 per cent on the £15,513 million figure reported in 2009.  The total value of UK imports of merchanting, other trade-related services and services between related enterprises in 2010 was £7,541 million, remaining relatively static compared to the £7,438 million figure reported in 2009. 

Exports

Figure B3 - Exports of merchanting, other trade related services and services between related enterprises, 2009 to 2010

Figure B3 - Exports of merchanting, other trade related services and services between related enterprises, 2009 to 2010

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The breakdown of UK exports of merchanting, other trade related services and services between related enterprises, by continent, reported in 2010, were as follows:

  • Europe continued to be the primary destination of UK exports of these services, accounting for £9,472 million in 2010 (compared with £8,620 million in 2009), an increase of 10 per cent. This represented 55 per cent of the total UK exports value of these services.

  • Within Europe, the largest proportion of UK exports can be attributed to Switzerland in 2010 (compared with the Netherlands in 2009) with £1,807 million, accounting for 10 per cent of total UK exports of these services. The Netherlands were still prominent, and accounted for the second highest proportion of exports of these services from the UK, at £1,668 million in 2010 (compared with £1,854 million in 2009).

  • The Americas accounted £4,721 million of the total UK exports of these services in 2010 (compared with £4,341 million in 2009), an increase of nine per cent. This was mainly driven by the USA with £3,527 million in 2010 (compared with £3,360 million in 2009), an increase of five per cent. The USA continued to be the single largest destination of exports of these services, with a 20 per cent share of the total UK exports in 2010.

  • Exports to Asia were reported as £2,157 million in 2010 (compared with £1,668 million in 2009), an increase of 29 per cent. This accounted for 13 per cent of total UK exports of these services in 2010.

Imports

Figure B3 - Imports of merchanting, other trade related services and services between related enterprises, 2009 to 2010

Figure B3 - Imports of merchanting, other trade related services and services between related enterprises, 2009 to 2010

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The breakdown of UK imports of merchanting, other trade related services and services between related enterprises, by continent, reported in 2010, were as follows:

  • Europe continued to be the primary source of UK imports for this product group in 2010. This accounted for 60 per cent of the total imports of these services in 2010 with £4,529 million (compared with £4,507 million in 2009).

  • Within Europe, France became the primary source of imports of these services to the UK (compared with the Netherlands in 2009). UK imports from the Netherlands decreased by 65 per cent from £1,089 million in 2009 to £383 million in 2010.

  • UK imports from the Americas decreased from £1,685 million in 2009 to £1,573 million in 2010, a decrease of seven per cent. The USA continued to be the single largest source of UK imports for these services, with a 19 per cent share of the total. UK imports from the USA decreased by five per cent, from £1,525 million in 2009 to £1,454 million in 2010.

  • UK imports from Asia rose from £939 million in 2009 to £1,112 million in 2010, an increase of 18 per cent. The main driver of this increase can be attributed to Japan, where UK imports of these services rose from £87 million in 2009 to £180 million in 2010. 

Balances 

The balance of £8,075 million in 2009 increased by 20 per cent to £9,712 million in 2010. This increase can be attributed to a larger rise in exports than imports for the merchanting, other trade-related services and services between related enterprises for all continents.

  • Europe, with a UK trade in services balance of £4,943 million in 2010, compared with £4,113 million in 2009, made the largest contribution, with a 51 per cent share of the total.

  • The America’s continued to account for the second largest UK surplus balance with £3,148 million in 2010, compared with £2,656 million for 2009. This was an increase of 19 per cent.  Within the Americas, the UK's balance with USA increased from £1,836 million in 2009 to £2,073 million in 2010 (13 per cent). 

  • The UK's surplus balance with Asia increased by 43 per cent from £730 million in 2009 to £1,045 million in 2010.  This was largely driven by an increase in exports from the UK to both India and South Korea, whilst imports from these countries remained relatively stable. 

Notes for Section B: Trade in services products: geographical analysis

  1. All values are current prices (see background notes).

Section C: Trade in services products: industry and product analysis

This section illustrates UK trade in services exports, imports and balances by industry and product classification, detailed by total UK trade in services by industry, by product and prominent industry groups analysed by product. Comparisons are made between 2009 and 2010.

Total trade in services (excluding travel, transport and banking) by industry sector (refer to table CO)

In 2010, the five largest industry sectors for total UK exports and imports of trade in services were professional, scientific and technical activities, information and communication activities, financial and insurance activities, manufacturing and wholesale/retail trade. In 2010, these industry sectors continued to make up 90 per cent of the exports from the UK and 88 per cent of the imports to the UK.

Exports

Figure CO - Exports of total ITIS, Top 5 industries

Figure CO - Exports of total ITIS, Top 5 industries

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The breakdown of UK trade in services exports, by industry, reported in 2010, were as follows: 

  • The professional, scientific and technical industries accounted for the largest proportion of UK exports of services for both 2009 and 2010.  Exports for these industries increased marginally from £27,677 million in 2009 to £27,876 million in 2010. This amounted to 31 per cent of the total UK exports of all services in 2010 (compared with 33 per cent in 2009). 

  • The information and communication industries accounted for the second largest proportion of UK exports of services for both 2009 and 2010.  Exports for these industries increased by nine per cent from £19,448 million in 2009 to £21,204 million in 2010. This amounted to 24 per cent of the total UK exports of all services in 2010 (compared with 23 per cent in 2009).

  • Financial and insurance industry UK exports increased by six per cent from £10,992 million in 2009 to £11,670 million in 2010.  For both 2009 and 2010, these industries accounted for 13 per cent of the total UK exports of these services. 

  • UK manufacturing exports remained relatively static in 2010 at £10,598 million, up from £10,536 million in 2009.

  • UK exports within the wholesale and retail trade industries showed a large increase of 26 per cent from £6,842 million in 2009 to £8,609 million in 2010. This accounted for 10 per cent of total UK exports in 2010 (compared with eight per cent in 2009).

Imports

Figure CO - Imports of total ITIS, Top 5 industries

Figure CO - Imports of total ITIS, Top 5 industries

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The breakdown of UK trade in services imports, by industry, reported in 2010, were as follows: 

  • The information and communication industries accounted for the largest proportion of UK imports of services in 2010 (compared with professional, scientific and technical industries in 2009). Imports for these industries increased by 14 per cent from £10,968 million in 2009 to £12,517 million in 2010. This amounted to 30 per cent of the total UK imports of all services in 2010 (compared with 26 per cent in 2009).

  • The professional, scientific and technical industries accounted for 29 per cent of the total UK imports in 2010 (compared with 31 per cent in 2009). Imports for these industries decreased by five per cent, from £12,991 million in 2009 to £12,326 million in 2010.

  • UK imports for the manufacturing industry rose marginally from £5,508 million in 2009 to £5,516 million in 2010. The manufacturing industry accounted for 13 per cent of the total UK imports in 2010.

  • The wholesale and retail trade industries showed a decrease of 11 per cent of UK imports, from £4,202 million in 2009 to £3,739 million in 2010. This accounted for nine per cent of total UK imports in 2010 (compared with 10 per cent in 2009).

  • UK imports for financial and insurance industries imports have increased by nine per cent from £2,812 million in 2009 to £3,066 million in 2010. In 2010, this accounted for seven per cent of total UK imports.

Balances

The UK trade in services balance was reported in 2010 at a surplus of £47,449 million, an increase of 11 per cent on the positive balance of £42,561 million reported in 2009.

This increase was mainly driven by the wholesale/retail trade sector, which saw an 84 per cent balance increase. This was primarily due to a 26 per cent increase in UK exports of wholesale/retail trade between 2009 and 2010.

In 2010, the public administration, education and health industry sector balance switched from a deficit of £154 million in 2009 to a surplus of £304 million in 2010. This was driven by a rise in UK exports from £263 million in 2009 to £397 million in 2010 (51 per cent increase) and a decrease in UK imports from £418 million in 2009 to £94 million in 2010 (78 per cent decrease).

The real estate industry sector balance decreased from £390 million in 2009 to £133 million in 2010 (66 per cent decrease). This was driven by a relatively large decrease in UK exports, from £430 million in 2009 to £183 million in 2010, and a marginal increase in UK imports from £40 million in 2009 to £49 million in 2010.

Total International Trade in Services (excluding travel, transport and banking) analysed by product (refer to table C1)

Exports

In 2010, the five largest product groups for total UK exports of trade in services were business and professional services, royalties and licence fees, financial services, technical services and communications services. These product groups accounted for 74 per cent of the total UK exports of trade in services. 

Figure C1 - Exports of total ITIS (all industries) by products, Top 5

Figure C1 - Exports of total ITIS (all industries) by products, Top 5

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The breakdown of UK exports of trade in services, by product, reported in 2010, were as follows: 

  • The business and professional services accounted for the largest proportion of UK exports for both 2009 and 2010. Exports for these industries decreased marginally from £34,092 million in 2009 to £33,479 million in 2010. This amounted to 37 per cent of the total UK exports of all services in 2010.

  • The value of royalties and licence services exported from the UK stayed broadly static, from £10,915 million in 2009 to £10,858 million in 2010.

Imports

In 2010, the five largest product groups for total UK imports of trade in services were business and professional services, royalties and licence fees, communication services, computer and information services and technical services.  These product groups accounted for 87 per cent of the total UK imports of trade in services. 

 

Figure C1 - Imports of total ITIS (all industries) by products, Top 5

Figure C1 - Imports of total ITIS (all industries) by products, Top 5

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The breakdown of UK imports of trade in services, by product, reported in 2010, were as follows: 

  • Business and professional services accounted for the largest proportion of UK imports for both 2009 and 2010. Imports of these services increased marginally from £18,989 million in 2009 to £19,378 million in 2010. This amounted to 46 per cent of the total UK imports of all services in 2010. 

  • UK imports of royalties and licences services remained relatively static between 2009 and 2010, but continued to account for the second largest proportion of services imported to the UK. These UK imports rose marginally from £6,749 million in 2009 to £6,832 million in 2010.

  • UK imports of communication services increased by eight per cent, from £4,216 million in 2009 to £4,561 million in 2010.  This accounted for 11 per cent of total UK imports of all services in 2010 (compared with 10 per cent in 2009). This increase was driven by the rise in UK imports of telecommunications within this group of services, which rose from £3,815 million in 2009 to £4,148 million in 2010, an increase of nine per cent.

  • UK imports of computer and information services remained relatively static at £4,160 million in 2010, accounting for 10 per cent of total UK imports of all services.

  • UK imports of technical services imports decreased by 12 per cent from £1,969 million in 2009 to £1,738 million in 2010. This accounted for four per cent of total imports of UK services (compared with five per cent in 2009). This was mainly driven by a 19 per cent decrease in engineering services, from £1,379 million in 2009 to £1,123 million in 2010. 

Further product analysis shows the following:

  • UK imports of construction goods and services decreased by 33 per cent, from £1,447 million in 2009 to £966 million in 2010. This was mainly driven by a 41 per cent decrease in UK imports of construction services outside the UK. 

Balances

  • The 2010 UK trade in services balance continued to be dominated by business and professional services with £14,100 million (compared with £15,102 million in 2009) accounting for 30 per cent of the total balance of UK trade in services (compared with 35 per cent of the total balance in 2009).

  • The financial services continued to contribute the next largest positive UK trade balance with £7,841 million in 2010 (compared with £6,455 million in 2009). This accounted for 17 per cent of the total balance of UK trade in services in 2010 (compared with 15 per cent in 2009).

  • The total UK trade in services balance increased between 2009 and 2010, was primarily driven by merchanting and trade related services. These rose from £1,659 million in 2009 to £4,122 million in 2010. Within these services, merchanting saw the largest increase from £695 million in 2009 to £3,579 million in 2010.

Manufacturing industry analysed by product (refer to table C2)

Exports

UK exports of services in the manufacturing industry increased marginally between 2009 and 2010, from £10,536 million in 2009 to £10,598 million in 2010. 

Figure C2 - Exports of the manufacturing industry by product, Top 5

Figure C2 - Exports of the manufacturing industry by product, Top 5

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In 2010, the largest product groups for the manufacturing industries were royalties and licences, business and professional services, technical services, other trade in services and computer and information services. These product groups accounted for 92 per cent of UK exports of services within the manufacturing industry. 

The breakdown of UK exports for the manufacturing industry, by product, reported in 2010, were as follows:

  • Royalties and licences accounted for the largest proportion of UK exports within the manufacturing sector for both 2009 and 2010.  Although exports for these services decreased by seven per cent from £2,947 million in 2009 to £2,727 million in 2010, they still accounted for 26 per cent of the total UK exports for the manufacturing industry in 2010, compared with 28 per cent in 2009.

  • UK exports of business and professional services within the manufacturing sector decreased by five per cent from £2,607 million in 2009 to £2,484 million in 2010 and continued to contribute the second largest proportion of exported services from the UK. These services accounted for 23 per cent of UK exports in 2010 compared with 25 per cent in 2009 for the manufacturing industry.

Further product analysis shows the following:

  • Construction exports from the UK within the manufacturing industry, decreased by 65 per cent, from £424 million in 2009 to £149 million in 2010, the largest decrease for this industry sector. UK exports for construction in the UK decreased from £194 million in 2009 to £54 million in 2010.

Imports

UK imports of services in the manufacturing industry have remained consistent between 2009 and 2010, rising from £5,508 million in 2009 to £5,516 million in 2010. 

Figure C2 - Imports of the manufacturing industry by product, Top 5

Figure C2 - Imports of the manufacturing industry by product, Top 5

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The breakdown of UK imports of services in the manufacturing industry, by products, reported in 2010, were as follows:

  • Business and professional services, accounted for the largest percentage of UK imports for the manufacturing industry for both 2009 and 2010. UK imports of these services increased marginally from £2,087 million in 2009 to £2,322 million in 2010. This amounted to a 42 per cent share of the total UK imports for the manufacturing industry, compared with a 38 per cent share in 2009. 

  • UK imports of royalties and licences services also showed an increase, rising by 11 per cent from £1,439 million in 2009 to £1,595 million in 2010. This can be attributed to a rise in UK imports for all of the services within royalties and licences.   Other royalties and licence fees saw the highest increase, rising from £1,052 million in 2009 to £1,136 million in 2010.

  • UK imports of technical services decreased by 17 per cent within the manufacturing industry sector, from £591 million in 2009 to £488 million in 2010.  This accounted for nine per cent of total UK imports for the manufacturing industry.

  • Within the computer and information services group, UK imports of computer services decreased from £511 million in 2009 to £376 million in 2010. Computer and information services accounted for seven per cent of total UK imports for the manufacturing industry in 2010, compared with a 10 per cent share in 2009.

Balances

The UK trade in services balance for the manufacturing industry remained broadly static between 2009 and 2010, having slightly increased from £5,073 million in 2009 to £5,082 million in 2010.

Technical services continued to contribute the largest positive trade balance with £1,974 million in 2010 (compared with £1,807 million in 2009). This accounted for 39 per cent of the total UK trade in services balance for the manufacturing industry.

Wholesale & Retail Industry analysed by product (refer to table C3)

Exports

Total UK exports of services for the wholesale and retail industry sector increased by 26 per cent from £6,842 million in 2009 to £8,609 million in 2010. 

 

Figure C3 - Exports of the wholesale and retail industry by product, Top 5

Figure C3 - Exports of the wholesale and retail industry by product, Top 5

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The breakdown of UK exports for the wholesale and retail industry, by product, reported in 2010, were as follows:

  • UK exports of merchanting and other trade related services accounted for the largest proportion within the wholesale and retail industry sector.  UK exports of these services increased substantially from £1,439 million in 2009 to £4,212 million in 2010, accounting for a 49 per cent share of total UK exports of the wholesale and retail industry sector.  This increase was driven by a rise in merchanting services, which increased from £556 million in 2009 to £3,573 million in 2010. This was mainly due to high profits being made from the sale of oil. 

  • In 2009, UK exports of business and professional services were the largest proportion of total exports within the wholesale and retail industry sector, worth £3,566 million (52 per cent). In 2010, UK exports declined to £2,739 million and contributed the second largest proportion of UK exports with 32 per cent of total UK exports within this industry sector.

  • UK exports of royalties and licences decreased from £263 million in 2009 to £74 million in 2010 within the wholesale and retail industry. The primary reason for the movement was a decrease in the use of franchise and similar rights fees, which saw a drop from £839 million in 2009 to £595 million in 2010. 

  • UK exports of computer and information services showed an increase from £129 million in 2009 to £365 million in 2010. In 2010, these services accounted for a four per cent share of the total exports for the wholesale and retail industry, compared with two per cent in 2009.

  • UK exports of communication services decreased by 31 per cent, from £272 million in 2009 to £189 million in 2010 within the wholesale and retail industry sector. 

Imports

UK imports of services within the wholesale and retail industry sector decreased by 11 per cent from £4,202 million in 2009 to £3,739 million in 2010. UK imports decreased for the majority of these services, with only slight increases for imports of merchanting, other trade related services and technical services.

Figure C3 - Imports of the wholesale and retail industry by product, Top 5

Figure C3 - Imports of the wholesale and retail industry by product, Top 5

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The breakdown of UK imports for the wholesale and retail industry sector, by product, reported for 2010, were as follows:

  • UK imports of business and professional services within the wholesale and retail industry sector accounted for the largest proportion of imports for both 2009 and 2010, with 59 per cent of total imports for this industry sector. This decreased by seven per cent from £2,348 million in 2009 to £2,189 million in 2010. 

  • UK imports of merchanting and other trade related services are one of only two services to show an increase between 2009 and 2010 within the wholesale and retail industry sector. Merchanting services increased from £4 million in 2009 to £44 million in 2010.

  • UK imports of computer and information services decreased slightly from £164 million in 2009 to £153 million in 2010 and as in 2009, accounted for seven per cent of the total UK imports for the wholesale and retail industry sector. 

Balances

The surplus balance for UK trade in services increased from £2,640 million in 2009 to £4,869 million in 2010. This was due to an increase of 26 per cent in UK exports compared with a decrease of 11 per cent in UK imports within this industry sector.

The largest contributor to the balance of UK trade in services for the wholesale and retail industry sector was merchanting and other trade related services, accounting for 83 per cent. The balance of merchanting and other trade related services rose from £1,319 million in 2009 to £4,047 million in 2010.  This was due to the sizeable increase in exports within this product group.

 

Information and Communication industry analysed by product (refer to table C4)

Exports

UK exports in the communication and information industry increased by nine per cent from £19,448 million in 2009 to £21,204 million in 2010. 

Figure C4 - Exports of the communication and information industry by product, Top 5

Figure C4 - Exports of the communication and information industry by product, Top 5

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The breakdown of UK exports in the information and communication industry sector, by product, reported in 2010, were as follows:

  • Computer and information services made up the largest proportion of UK exports with a value of £6,479 million in 2010, compared with £6,897 million in 2009, accounting for 31 per cent of total exports within this industry. The largest individual UK exports service within the computer and information services group was computer services, accounting for £5,238 million in 2010. This amounted to 25 per cent of the total UK exports of this service group.

  • UK exports of royalties and licenses within this industry sector increased by eight per cent to £4,912 million in 2010, compared with £4,541 million in 2009, accounting for 23 per cent of the total UK exports in this industry. The year on year increase of UK exports for royalties and licence fees was mainly attributed to the 27 per cent increase of other royalties and licence fees services, from £2,376 million in 2009 to £3,013 million in 2010. 

  • UK exports of communication services increased the most within the top five services (25 per cent) from £3,547 million in 2009 to £4,433 million in 2010. Communication services accounted for 21 per cent of the total UK exports within this industry in 2010, of which telecommunications services accounted for the largest proportion, having increased from £3,473 million in 2009 to £4,425 million in 2010. 

  • UK exports of business and professional services within this industry sector rose by 26 per cent, from £2,658 million in 2009 to £3,350 million in 2010.  Services between related enterprises contributed the majority share to the UK exports of business and professional services, increasing by 54 per cent from £1,344 million in 2009 to £2,072 million in 2010.    

  • UK exports of personal, cultural and recreational services increased by seven per cent from £1,076 million in 2009 to £1,147 million in 2010 within the information and communication industry sector.

Imports

Total UK imports within the information and communication industry sector for 2010 were £12,517 million, up 14 per cent from £10,968 million in 2009. UK imports for all of the main services within this industry sector increased between 2009 and 2010. 

 

Figure C4 - Imports of the communication and information industry by product, Top 5

Figure C4 - Imports of the communication and information industry by product, Top 5

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The breakdown of UK imports in the information and communication industry sector, by product, recorded in 2010, were as follows:

  • Communication services make up the largest proportion of UK imports at £3,794 million in 2010 (compared with £3,281 million in 2009), accounting for 30 per cent of the total information and communication industry sector imports. UK imports of telecommunications services increased by 17 per cent from £3,242 million in 2009 to £3,784 million in 2010.

  • UK imports of business and professional services increased from £1,937 million in 2009 to £2,656 million in 2010, a 37 per cent year on year increase.  This resulted in business and professional services overtaking royalties and licences within the top five products within this industry sector.

  • UK imports of royalties and licences services have increased by eight per cent from £2,485 million in 2009 to £2,674 million in 2010.  

  • UK imports of personal, cultural and recreational services within this industry sector showed a nine per cent increase from £318 million in 2009 to £348 million in 2010. The main contributing factor was the rise in UK imports of audio, visual and related services, which increased by 14 per cent, from £301 million in 2009 to £343 million in 2010.

Balances

The overall UK balance for information and communication industry sector increased from £8,481 million in 2009 to £8,687 million in 2010 (two per cent increase).

The largest contribution to the UK balance was made by the computer and information services with £3,757 million in 2010 compared with £4,266 million in 2009.  This accounted for 43 per cent of the total UK trade in services balance for this industry sector.  

Professional, scientific and technical support industry analysed by product (refer to table C5)

Exports

Total UK exports for the professional, scientific and technical support industries remained at a similar level, from £27,677 million in 2009 to £27,876 million in 2010.  

Figure C5 - Exports of the professional, scientific and technical support industry by product, Top 5

Figure C5 - Exports of the professional, scientific and technical support industry by product, Top 5

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The breakdown of UK exports of the professional, scientific and technical support industry sector, by product, reported in 2010, were as follows:  

  • UK exports of business and professional services accounted for the largest proportion of exports (72 per cent) within this industry sector. Within this group, UK exports of research and development services increased from £3,457 million in 2009 to £4,264 million in 2010, however, this was off-set by a decrease in services between related enterprises from £6,527 million in 2009 to £5,865 million in 2010.

  • UK exports of technical services remained the second largest type of service within this industry sector, despite decreasing by five per cent from £3,508 million in 2009 to £3,316 million in 2010 (12 per cent). While UK exports of architectural, surveying and other technical services increased, UK exports for engineering services decreased from £2,774 million in 2009 to £2,335 million in 2010, which was the main factor in the overall decrease of technical services.

  • UK exports of royalties and licences services within this industry sector increased from £1,641 million in 2009 to £2,008 million in 2010, a rise of 22 per cent. 

  • Whilst UK exports of communications, computer and information services within this industry sector have increased marginally from £662 million in 2009 to £689 million in 2010 (up four per cent), construction of goods and services have decreased by 23 per cent, from £824 million in 2009 to £633 million in 2010. 

Imports

Total UK imports of services within the professional, scientific and technical support industry sector decreased by five per cent, from £12,991 million in 2009 to £12,326 million in 2010.

Figure C5 - Imports of the professional, scientific and technical support industry by product, Top 5

Figure C5 - Imports of the professional, scientific and technical support industry by product, Top 5

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The breakdown of UK imports of services in the professional, scientific and technical support industry sector, by product, reported in 2010, were as follows:

  • Business and professional services contributed the largest proportion of UK imports within this industry sector for both 2009 and 2010, accounting for 75 per cent of the total in 2010. Within this group of services, research and development accounted for the largest proportion of UK imports, increasing by 27 per cent from £2,724 million in 2009 to £3,464 million in 2010.

  • UK imports of royalties and licences within this industry sector decreased by eight per cent from £1,113 million in 2009 to £1,020 million in 2010.  This was due to a drop in services for the use of franchise and similar rights fees and other royalties and licence fees.

  • UK imports of technical services decreased by 29 per cent from £1,016 million in 2009 to £719 million in 2010. This was driven by the drop in engineering services within this industry sector, from £884 million in 2009 to £521 million in 2010 (41 per cent). 

  • UK imports of construction services within the professional, scientific and technical support industry sector saw the largest decrease, dropping by 53 per cent from £850 million in 2009 to £401 million in 2010. 

Balances

  • The overall balance of the professional, scientific and technical support industry sector increased by six per cent from £14,686 million in 2009 to £15,550 million in 2010. 

  • The largest contribution to the balance was made by business and professional services with £10,824 million in 2010, accounting for 70 per cent of the total UK trade in services balance for this industry sector. 

  • Royalties and licences services contributed the largest year on year UK balance increase from £528 million in 2009 to £988 million in 2010, an 87 per cent increase. 

Administrative and Support Service activities industries analysed by product (refer to table C6)

Exports

Total UK exports of services within the administrative and support service industry sector increased by 22 per cent from £3,409 million in 2009 to £4,147 million in 2010.

 

Figure C6 - Exports of the administrative and support service activities industry by product, Top 5

Figure C6 - Exports of the administrative and support service activities industry by product, Top 5

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The breakdown of UK exports in the administrative and support service industry sector, by product, reported in 2010, were as follows:

  • Business and professional services accounted for the largest proportion of total UK exports within this industry sector for 2009 and 2010, representing a 52 per cent share of exports from the UK in 2010. These services increased from £2,012 million in 2009 to £2,177 million in 2010, an increase of eight per cent. 

  • UK exports of technical services increased by 87 per cent from £262 million in 2009 to £489 million in 2010.  This increase resulted in UK exports of technical services contributing the second largest type of service within the administrative and support service industry sector.

  • UK exports of financial services increased from £117 million in 2009 to £342 million in 2010.  Financial services were ranked as the third largest type of service in 2010, within this industry sector.

Imports

The UK imports of services within the administrative and support services industry sector remained relatively static in 2010 at £1,554 million, compared with £1,547 million in 2009.

Figure C6 - Imports of the administrative and support service activities industry by product, Top 5

Figure C6 - Imports of the administrative and support service activities industry by product, Top 5

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The breakdown of UK imports for the administrative and support service activities industry sector, by product, reported in 2010, were as follows:

  • UK imports of business and professional services accounted for the largest proportion of administrative and support service industries in 2010 (60 per cent). Even though these services decreased from £977 million in 2009 to £930 million in 2010, they continued to contribute the majority share to UK imports within this industry sector. 

  • UK imports of royalties and licences increased by 11 per cent from £205 million in 2009 to £228 million in 2010.  These services accounted for 15 per cent of the UK imports within the administrative and support service industry sector, compared to 13 per cent in 2009.

Balances

The UK surplus balance of UK trade in services of the administrative and support service industry sector increased by 39 per cent, from £1,862 million in 2009 to £2,593 million in 2010.  The largest UK surplus balance can be attributed to business and professional services.  Whilst there was an increase in exports, imports remained largely static. 

Arts, Entertainment, Recreation and other service activities industries analysed by product (refer to table C7)

Exports

Total UK exports of services for the arts, entertainment and recreation industry sector increased by 44 per cent from £1,456 million in 2009 to £2,099 million in 2010.   This increase can be attributed to the large rise in industry exports of personal, cultural and recreation services within this industry sector.

Figure C7 - Exports of the arts, entertainment, recreation and other services activities industry by product, Top 5

Figure C7 - Exports of the arts, entertainment, recreation and other services activities industry by product, Top 5

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The breakdown of UK exports for the arts, entertainment and recreation industry sector, by product, reported in 2010 were as follows:

  • Personal, cultural and recreational services accounted for the largest proportion of UK exports within this industry for both 2009 and 2010. UK exports for these services increased from £732 million in 2009 to £1,252 million in 2010 (71 per cent).

  • UK exports of business and professional services increased by 36 per cent from £219 million in 2009 to £297 million in 2010.  UK exports for this type of service was the second highest contributor to the arts, entertainment and recreation industry sector.

  • UK exports of royalties and licences services were the only services to decrease from £332 million in 2009 to £285 million in 2010. Purchases and sales of other royalties and licences within this section decreased from £129 million in 2009 to £97 million in 2010. 

Imports

Total UK imports within this industry sector increased by 17 per cent from £564 million in 2009 to £662 million in 2010. 

 

Figure C7 - Imports of the arts, entertainment, recreation and other services activities industry by product, Top 5

Figure C7 - Imports of the arts, entertainment, recreation and other services activities industry by product, Top 5

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The breakdown of UK imports for the arts, entertainment and recreation industry sector, by product, reported in 2010, were as follows:

  • UK imports of royalties and licenses services for arts, entertainment and recreation industries increased from £124 million in 2009 to £248 million in 2010, accounting for 37 per cent of total imports. They were the largest imported service to the UK, having previously been ranked as second within this group of industries.  The increase was largely attributed to purchases and sales of other royalties and licences, which rose from £92 million in 2009 to £224 million in 2010.

  • UK imports of business and professional services remained fairly static at £181 million in 2010. Within business and professional services, advertising rose by the largest amount, having imported £47 million of advertising services to the UK in 2010 compared with £32 million in 2009.

Balances

The surplus UK balance of trade in services of the arts, entertainment and recreation industry sector increased by 61 per cent from £892 million in 2009 to £1,436 million in 2010.  This rise was due to an increase in the balance for personal, cultural and recreational services from £574 million in 2009 to £1,142 million in 2010 (99 per cent). 

Notes for Section C: Trade in services products: industry and product analysis

  1. A more detailed description of industry classification is provided in background notes.

  2. All values are current prices (see background notes).

Section D: Film and Television Industries (FTV) excluding other services analysed by continents and countries 2010

This section illustrates UK exports and imports for the film and television industries. The exports and imports figures are analysed by country and continent.

UK exports and imports for film and television combined (refer to tables D1 & D2)

Figure D0 - Film and television industry (excluding other services) 2010

Figure D0 - Film and television industry (excluding other services) 2010

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Exports of film and television industries combined

The total value of exports of services from the UK within the film and television industry sector increased from £2,956 million in 2009 to £3,811 million in 2010 (29 per cent). In 2010, Europe continued to the be the main destination for UK exports of film and television services within this industry sector. 

Imports of film and television industries combined

The total value of imports of services to the UK within the film and television industry, marginally increased to £1887 million in 2010. UK imports from the Americas and Europe continued to dominate the film and television industry sector.

Balances of film and television industries combined

The total combined surplus balance for UK trade in services in 2010 was reported at £1,925 million, an increase of 79 per cent on the balance of £1,074 million reported in 2009. This was largely attributed to the combination of an increase in UK exports of services coupled with static UK imports.

Film Industry (excluding other services) analysed by continents and countries (refer to table D1)


Figure D1 - Film industry (excluding other services) 2010

Figure D1 - Film industry (excluding other services) 2010

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Exports  

The total value of exports from the UK for services within the film industry was £2,106 million in 2010, an increase of 43 per cent on £1,476 million reported in 2009.  

The breakdown of UK exports of services by continent, reported in 2010, were as follows: 

  • Europe, with £1,224 million in 2010, compared with £695 million in 2009, saw an increase of 76 per cent. Much of this increase was within the European Union, increasing from £625 million in 2009 to £1,104 million in 2010. 

  • Within the Americas, the USA was the primary destination of services for the film industry, with a value of £647 million in 2010 which is equivalent to 31 per cent of the total. 

  • UK exports to Asia increased by 39 per cent from £79 million in 2009 to £110 million in 2010. This was mainly driven by an increase in exports from the UK to the rest of Asia, from £30 million in 2009 to £60 million in 2010.

Imports

The total value of imports into the UK of services within the film industry decreased slightly to £543 million in 2010, compared with £547 million in 2009. 

  • UK imports of film services from Europe decreased by eight per cent with £247 million in 2010, compared with £267 million in 2009. 

  • UK imports of services from the Americas increased from £128 million in 2009 to £241 million in 2010. The USA was the primary source for these services, with a value of £211 million in 2010,  from £111 million in 2009, an increase of 90 per cent.

Balance

The total balance of trade in services within the film industry increased from £929 million in 2009 to £1,564 million in 2010. This was primarily due to the increase in exports from the UK to Europe.  

Television industry (excluding other services) analysed by continents and countries (refer to table D2)  

 

Figure D2 - Television industry (excluding other services) 2010

Figure D2 - Television industry (excluding other services) 2010

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Exports

The total value of exports from the UK of services within the television industry totalled £1,705 million in 2010, a 15 per cent increase on the 2009 figure of £1,480 million. 

The breakdown of exports of television services reported by continent in 2010, were as follows:

  • The majority of UK exports in 2010 were to Europe, increasing from £921 million in 2009 to £1,059 million in 2010, a rise of 15 per cent.  

  • UK exports to the Americas saw an increase of 22 per cent, rising from £352 million in 2009 to to £431 million in 2010. The USA accounted for most of the UK exports of television services to the Americas with £372 million in 2010, which is a 35 per cent increase on £276 million in 2009.

  • UK exports to Asia increased by eight per cent from £85 million in 2009 to £92 million in 2010.  

Imports

The total value of imports into the UK of services within the television industry totalled £1,344 million in 2010, increasing slightly from £1,335 million in 2009.

  • UK imports from the Americas were reported at £722 million in 2010, compared with £882 million in 2009.  This decrease of 18 per cent can be largely attributed to the drop in UK imports from the USA, from £861 million in 2009 to £703 million in 2010. 

  • UK imports from Europe increased by 41 per cent to £550 million in 2010, from £390 million in 2009. UK imports from Switzerland rose from £96 million in 2009 to £199 million in 2010.   

Balances 

The total UK balance for trade in services within the television industry increased from £145 million in 2009 to £361 million in 2010.  This was driven by substantial increases in UK exports of television services.

The highest UK balance was for Europe, with a £509 million surplus in 2010. Despite this, the overall net UK balance for the television industry sector was £361 million, due to a deficit of £290 million for the Americas. 

Notes for Section D: Film and Television Industries (FTV) excluding other services analysed by continents and countries 2010

  1. Data for the film and television industries was collected by the International Trade in Services (ITIS) Survey for the first time in 2009.  Prior to 2009 data on international transactions of these industries were collected through a stand alone survey and published in a statistical bulletin, which has now been discontinued.

  2. All values are current prices (see background notes).

Background notes

  1. Basic Quality Information (BQI)

    Key issues specific to this publication

    As previously announced, the Film and Television Survey (FTV) has been discontinued and incorporated into the Annual Survey of International Trade in Services from the 2009 survey year.  It has also been incorporated into the quarterly ITIS survey from 2010.  This will be the first time this data will have been collected on a quarterly basis.

  2. Link to Quality and Methodology Information

    The Quality and Methodology Information (300.1 Kb Pdf) describes, in detail, the intended uses of the statistics presented in this publication, their general quality and the methods used to produce them.

    The text and charts within this publication should be used in conjunction with the adjoining tables in Sections B, C and D.

  3. Data sources and methods

    This 2010 publication is the seventh release of data from the annual International Trade in Services (ITIS) Survey. The main purpose of the publication is to respond to the increasing demand for information on international trade in services. The data are classified according to the fifth edition of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Balance of Payments Manual (BPM5).  

    The results of the Annual and Quarterly Surveys into International Trade in Services (ITIS) provide Trade in Services data which contribute to key components of the measurement of the UK’s Balance of Payments (BoP) and of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).  The results are published in detail in UK Balance of Payments Pink Book .

    The ITIS survey (which consists of a quarterly component addressed to the largest businesses and an annual component for the remainder) covers receipts from the provision of services to residents of other countries (exports) and payments to residents of other countries for services rendered (imports). Residents of other countries are companies, governments and individuals. Although companies classified to the financial auxiliaries sector are included in the ITIS survey, businesses classified to other financial areas are not included in the sample. This does not mean that financial services are not covered as these services can be imported by companies classified outside the financial sector.

    The annual survey is made up of approximately 14,000 businesses for the annual component and 1,100 for the quarterly component.  This is a paper survey which offers a Telephone Data Entry (TDE) option.  An on-line data collection service would be desirable and is currently being investigated.

    This includes 9,000 businesses randomly selected from theInter Departmental Business Register (IDBR) . Selection is stratified by employment and Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 2007 . ITIS selects across the whole of the economy with a number of exceptions detailed at point 5 of this document.  An additional 5,000 businesses are made up of a fixed panel of known traders and as such are not subject to weighting.

    For the first time in 2007 data was used from theAnnual Business Survey (ABS)  to improve coverage of the ITIS survey.  In total the ABS  approaches some 65,000 companies. A matching exercise of samples and universes was undertaken to ensure no duplication.  Following this quality assurance exercise, data from approximately 9,000 companies were used in the 2010 ITIS results. It should be noted that the ABS  component only provides total import and export data.  The country and product detail are estimated using like companies from the fixed panel of known traders. Like companies are those within the same SIC and employment strata.        

    Respondents are requested to provide figures for the current calendar year (1st January 2010 to 31st December 2010), although some respondents provide figures for their actual accounting year. 

    All values for ITIS are at current prices.  Current prices refers to prices as they were at the time of measurement and not adjusted for inflation.

  4. Types of transactions covered

    Product: The statistical output from the ITIS survey covers the value of transactions between the UK and residents in other countries in respect of 51 products.

    Industry: The industry analysis enables estimation for the total international transactions in services by economic classification for well-defined areas of the economy using SIC information. Data for the 2009 and 2010 reference years in this publication have been published in SIC (2007) classification which is an internationally recognised standard industrial classification. This provides a framework for the collection, tabulation, presentation and analysis of data about economic activities. Prior to 2009, sic 2003 classification would have been used.

    Geographical: Both industry and product information are analysed geographically. The tables within this publication show the countries to which services are exported, and from which services are imported.

    Earnings from third country trade, i.e. from arranging the sale of goods between two countries other than the UK and where the goods never physically enter the UK are included. This is known as merchanting. Earnings from commodity trading are also included. As with merchanting, the service element is the profit or loss

  5. Types of transactions not covered

    The purpose of the ITIS survey is to record international transactions which impact on the UK’s Balance of Payments, hence companies are asked to exclude from their earnings trade expenses such as the cost of services purchased and consumed abroad. Trade in services exports or imports which are included in invoices for the export or import of goods are excluded as they are already counted in the estimates for trade in goods

    The ITIS survey currently selects for the whole of the economy, with a number of exceptions: Travel, Transport, Banking and other Financial Institutions, Higher Education, Charities, most activities within the legal profession.

  6. Coverage

    The figures for the European Union (EU) relate to the 27 member states of the EU from 2007 onwards.

    Trade with EU Institutions is also included in the EU totals and excluded from the International Organisations totals. 

    One important change that arose from implementing the newEuropean System of National and Regional Accounts (ESA95)  in particular and BPM5 with which it is consistent, is the exclusion of the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man from the definition of the UK’s economic territory. These territories are not members of the EU and consequently should be excluded in order to comply with ESA95.

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)  and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)  have recently released new versions of their manual (BPM6). This revised manual reflects the changes that have occurred in international finance since the previous updates. Along with other countries, the UK is currently working to implement these manuals. The UK is obliged to report these requirements from September 2014, for calendar year 2013. In line with the Code of Practice for Official Statistics, the Office for National Statistics (ONS) will consult fully with data providers and users of the statistics regarding any changes that occur as a result of the adoption of the new manuals.

    Please note that all tables in this publication only include data collected via the ITIS and ABS surveys. Data relating to Travel and Banking are not included.

    The Film and Television (FTV) Industries are included in the published data from 2009 onwards.

    The ITIS survey is just one component of the Trade in Services (TIS) estimates.  Data for TIS in this report are consistent with the UK Balance of Payments which can be found in Pink Book Chapter 3.

    By analogy with trade in goods we refer to the type of service traded as a “product analysis” – the products being consistent with the fifth edition of the International Monetary Fund's, Balance of Payments Manual . The second type of analysis is referred to as the “industry analysis” – covering well defined areas of the economy.  

    In the following section both types of tables, industry and product have been analysed on a geographical basis by showing the countries to which services are exported and from which they are imported. Both of these types of analyses are preceded by geographical analysis of imports and exports of total International Trade in Services.

    The industry analysis allows us to estimate the total international transactions in services for well-defined areas of the economy. It also tells us the exporting or importing country in relation to the UK.

  7. Accuracy and errors

    The measurement of trade in services presents a difficult   methodological problem, since the population is large and the occurrence (especially for imports) can be unpredictable and infrequent. Although the sample size of the ITIS survey was increased in 2002, given these measurement problems, it remains relatively modest and the quality of the estimates must be judged accordingly. 

    In addition to the imputation of detail for some categories where the data are incomplete, there remains a margin of uncertainty about the accuracy of reported data.  The finer the level of detail sought, the greater the likelihood of misallocation. Enterprises reporting data are encouraged to make their best estimates but as country attribution may not be a crucial aspect of the management information from which details are extracted, a significant degree of approximation is likely to occur.

    Given the conceptual and practical limitations described above, these estimates should be seen as a broad indication of the economic relationships between the UK and international economies. They will be more reliable and more meaningful in terms of broad geographical areas and major partner countries than for smaller partner countries.

    Within this publication, to avoid disclosing data on individual companies the tables have been arranged to remove these disclosive items. This is done wherever possible by suppressing the item so that non-disclosing headings are preserved.  However, in some cases it has been necessary to combine headings in order to mask the disclosive data. In addition, some totals or balances may not exactly agree with the calculations on the components. This is due to rounding.

  8. Response Rates

    Response Rates

    2010

    Reference Period 2010 Results
    Sample size 14,374
    Forms with response 12,391
    Forms non response 1,983
    Overall response rate (%) 86.2

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    In addition to this sample we also select approximately 9,000 businesses via the Annual Business Survey.

  9. Standard Errors

    Sampling error is the error caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population. While each sample is designed to produce the ‘best‘ estimate of the true population value, a number of equal sized samples covering the population would generally produce varying population estimates.  Sampling error is affected by a number of factors including sample size.

    Sample surveys are used instead of censuses, because the process would be too lengthy and costly to be viable.  Standard errors are an estimate of the sampling error and provide a measure of the precision of the estimate. A low standard error indicates a precise estimate. To aid comparison, the standard error is also expressed as a percentage of the total value. This quantity is called the coefficient of variation and it allows the standard errors to be put into context.

    In addition to sampling errors there is the potential for non-sampling error that cannot be easily quantified. For example, undetected deficiencies may occur in the survey register and errors may be made by the contributors when completing the survey questionnaires.

    The tables below contain standard error information for exports and imports for 2010.

    Standard Errors

    Exports

     
    Description of industries  Estimate (£m)  Standard Error (£m)  Relative Standard Error (%) 
    Total ITIS industries  89523 1636 1.9
    Section C Manufacturing  10598 133 1.3
    Section G Wholesale/Retail  8609 284 3.3
    Section J Information & Communication  21204 687 3.2
    Section M Professional, Scientific & Technical  27876 711 2.6
    Section N Administrative & Support Service  4147 315 7.6
    Section R&S Arts, Entertainment & Recreation  2099 263 12.5
           

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    Standard Errors

    Imports

     
    Description of industries  Estimate (£m)  Standard Error (£m)  Relative Standard Error (%)
    Total ITIS industries  42074 1271 3
    Section C Manufacturing  5516 96 1.8
    Section G Wholesale/Retail  3739 328 8.8
    Section J Information & Communication  12517 508 4.1
    Section M Professional, Scientific & Technical  12326 181 1.5
    Section N Administrative & Support Service  1554 243 15.7
    Section R&S Arts, Entertainment & Recreation  662 36 5.4
           

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  10. Imputation

    Imputation techniques are used to estimate values for those members of the population where data are not available, either due to the business being outside the sample or a non-respondent.  The imputation process accounts for the following figures and percentages of the final published figures:

    Imputation

    Imputed proportion of final published ITIS figures

    2010 survey £million % of total ITIS
    ITIS receipts 10,446 11.7
    ITIS payments 4,566 10.9

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    Non-response bias is a potential issue for all statistical surveys.  Non-response bias occurs where the answers of respondents may have differed from the potential answers of non-responders.  The risk of non-response bias is minimised by efforts to maximise response rates.  Estimation techniques can attempt to correct for any bias that might be present.  Despite this, it is not easy, on any survey, to quantify the extent to which non-response bias remains a  problem.  However, there is no evidence to suggest that non-response bias presents a particular issue for the ITIS surveys.

  11. Coherence

    • Comparison with Quarterly ITIS: In addition, the quarterly sample which is made up of approximately 1,100 survey contributors also feeds into ITIS results.  The quarterly survey is a subset of the largest companies, and the results are also used throughout the year to forecast total annual ITIS.

    • Comparison with the Film and Television Survey Data: The Film and Television Survey (FTV) is now incorporated into Annual ITIS since 2009. The results from this survey will be included in tables presenting total ITIS; which are tables AO, C0 and C1. Tables showing film industry data and television industry data by geographical area are published as tables D1 and D2 in the Annual ITIS 2010 publication.  These tables were shown as tables 4 & 5 in the 2008 International transactions of the UK film and television industries bulletin.

    • Comparison with ABS: The ABS survey is made up of approximately 65,000 companies.  Following quality assurance exercises to avoid double counting, the ABS survey supplements coverage of the ITIS survey by approximately 9,000 companies.

  12. Notes to tables

    The tables show International Trade in Services through a variety of formats. Some tables compare figures over several years but the majority provide the most recent geographic information by industry or product.  The tables provide information in as much detail as possible without disclosing the details of any individual companies. Any disclosive data is replaced by the following symbol throughout the tables “..”.  It is important to note that within the geographical tables, amounts are shown against the geographical area from which they were received, irrespective of where they were first earned. 

    European Free Trade Association (EFTA) comprises Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland.

    The sum of constituent items in tables may not always agree exactly with the totals shown due to rounding.

    The following symbols have been used throughout:

    ..          Figures suppressed to avoid disclosure of information relating to individual enterprises

    -           Nil or less than half the final digit shown

    n/a       Data not available for this period

  13. Geographical grouping

    The geographical groupings used in the tables that follow are as follows:

    Appendix B

    Geographical Groupings

    Europe The Americas Asia Australasia & Oceania Africa
             
    SPECIFIED COUNTRIES SPECIFIED COUNTRIES SPECIFIED COUNTRIES SPECIFIED COUNTRIES SPECIFIED COUNTRIES
    Albania Brazil China Australia Nigeria
    Austria Canada Hong Kong New Zealand South Africa
    Belarus Mexico India
    Belgium USA Indonesia OTHER COUNTRIES OTHER COUNTRIES
    Bulgaria Israel American Oceania Algeria
    Channel Islands OTHER COUNTRIES Japan Australian Oceania Angola
    Croatia Anguilla Malaysia Fiji Benin
    Cyprus Antigua & Barbuda Pakistan Kiribati Botswana
    Czech Republic Argentina Philippines Marshall Islands British Indian Ocean
    Denmark Aruba Saudi Arabia Micronesia Burkina Faso
    Estonia Bahamas Singapore Nauru Burundi
    Finland Barbados South Korea New Zealand Oceania Cameroon
    France Belize Taiwan Northern Mariana Islands Cape Verde
    Germany Bermuda Thailand Palau Central African Republic
    Greece Bolivia Papua New Guinea Chad
    Hungary British Virgin Islands Pitcairn Comoros
    Iceland Cayman Islands OTHER COUNTRIES Polar regions Congo
    Irish Republic Chile Afghanistan Solomon Islands Cote d’Ivoire
    Isle of Man Columbia Armenia Tonga Djibouti
    Italy Costa Rica Azerbaijan Tuvalu Egypt
    Hungary Cuba Bahrain Vanuatu Equatorial Guinea
    Latvia Dominica Bangladesh Samoa Eritrea
    Liechtenstein Dominican Republic Bhutan Ethiopia
    Lithuania Ecuador Brunei Gabon
    Luxembourg El Salvador Cambodia Gambia
    Malta Falkland Islands Gaza & Jericho Ghana
    Montenegro Grenada Georgia Guinea
    Netherlands Guatemala Iraq Guinea Bissau
    Norway Guyana Jordan Kenya
    Poland Haiti Kazakhstan Lesotho
    Portugal Honduras Kuwait Liberia
    Romania Jamaica Kyrgyzstan Libya
    Russia Montserrat Laos Madagascar
    Serbia Netherlands Lebanon Malawi
    Slovakia Nicaragua Macao Mali
    Slovenia Panama Maldives Mauritania
    Spain Paraguay Mongolia Mauritius
    Sweden Peru Myanmar (Burma) Morocco
    Switzerland Saba Nepal Mozambique
    Turkey St Eustatuis North Korea Namibia
    Ukraine St Kitts & Nevis Oman Niger
    St Lucia Qatar Rwanda
    OTHER COUNTRIES St Maaten Sri Lanka Sao Tome & Principe
    Andorra St Vincent Syria Senegal
    Bosnia-Hercegovina Surinam Tajikistan Seychelles & Dependencies
    Gibraltar Trinidad & Tobago Turkmenistan Sierra Leone
    Macedonia Turks & Caicos Islands United Arab Emirates Somalia
    Moldova Uraguay Uzbekistan St Helena & Dependencies
    Vatican City State US Virgin Islands Vietnam Sudan
    Venezuela Yemen Swaziland
    Tanzania
    Togo
    Tunisia
    Uganda
    Zaire
    Zambia
    Zimbabwe

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  14. Details of the policy governing the release of new data are available by visiting www.statisticsauthority.gov.uk/assessment/code-of-practice/index.html or from the Media Relations Office email: media.relations@ons.gsi.gov.uk

    These National Statistics are produced to high professional standards and released according to the arrangements approved by the UK Statistics Authority.

Statistical contacts

Name Phone Department Email
Ciara Williams-Fletcher +44 (0)1633 456165 Office for National Statistics, International Trade Branch ciara.williams-fletcher@ons.gov.uk
Get all the tables for this publication in the data section of this publication .
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