This is a short video looking at fertility in the UK.
We will start by looking at the number of births in the UK. In 2004 there were around 716 thousand babies born compared with around 772 thousand in 2007 and around 808 thousand in 2011, which equates to roughly 4 times the population of Portsmouth. As can be seen, there has been a sizable increase over the period.
There are three main factors that can affect the number of births including the number of women of child bearing age, their age and the number of children they are having and we will look at all of these factors in due course.
Moving this chart to one side, we can now look at the size of the childbearing population, that being women aged between 15-44. As illustrated we can see that the size of the childbearing age population has remained fairly constant over the period of 2004 to 2011.
However, the number of UK born women of childbearing age has been decreasing and, as highlighted in red, the number of non-UK born women has been increasing. The increase for non-UK women is approximately 53% between 2004 and 2011.
Again moving this chart to one side we can now analyse the percentage of births to non-UK born mothers. In 2004 this percentage was 18.3% and in 2011 it was 24.3%
Therefore we can see that total births have increased steadily since 2004. The number of females of childbearing age has remained constant but the number of non-UK born women of childbearing age has increased. This is further emphasised by the increase in the percentage of births to non-UK born mothers.
Next we will compare the age distributions of the UK born and non-UK born population in 2011. Using this pie chart we can see the distribution across the various age bands for UK born women. Turning our attention to non-UK born women, their age distribution is illustrated with this pie chart.
Comparing the two groups we can see that for the younger demographic, those aged under 25, 34% of UK born females fall into this category compared with just 20% of non-UK born women. For the 25-34 year old demographic we can see that 30% of UK born women are of this age compared with 45% of non-UK born women. This means that there are more non-UK born women in the peak childbearing ages.
Now we will look at age specific fertility rates for UK and non-UK born women, in 2011. This shows how many births there are per thousand women in each age group.
Starting with the youngest age group of 15-19 we can see that there are 22 births per thousand UK born women compared with 20 per thousand non-UK born women.
If we now look at the next three age bands of 20-24, 25-29 and 30-34 we can see that the age specific fertility rates are higher, and women aged 30-34 have on average around 6 times more births per thousand women, than those aged 15-19.
For the last two age bands, of 35-39 and 40-44 we can see that the age specific fertility rate is lower than that of the previous group of age bands. Hence we can see, using the arced line the pattern of fertility rates across the age bands with a peak for those aged 30-34.
Finally we can see that the only time the age specific fertility rate is higher for UK born women is for the 15-19 age band. Thus the non-UK born women have higher fertility rates at all ages except the youngest.
As we saw in the previous slide, non-UK born women on average have higher fertility rates at almost all ages, and are also more concentrated in the key childbearing ages of 25-34, than UK born women.
This chart will show the total fertility rate for UK born, non-UK born, and all women combined in the UK. The Total fertility rate is the number of births a woman could expect to have in her lifetime based on the current fertility rates.
Starting with all women we can see that in 2007 the average women would expect to give birth to 1.91 children. That figure for 2011 has increased to 1.97 children.
If we now look at this for UK and non-UK born women we can see that in 2007 the average UK born women gave birth to 1.8 children compared to 2.51 for non-UK born women. That is a difference of 0.71 children. In 2011, the average UK born women gave birth to 1.89 children compared with 2.28 for non-UK born women, a difference of 0.39.
Therefore we can see that despite the rate for all women remaining fairly constant, the total fertility rate for non-UK women has decreased and the rate for UK born women has increased slightly.
Finally we will look at the top five countries where the non-UK mothers were born. Starting with 2011 we can see that the largest number were born in Poland, followed by Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Nigeria.
If we now look at the trend going back to 2007 we can see that for four of the countries, with the exception of Poland, the level has remained fairly constant. However, Poland has experienced an increase of around 75% in the period. One reason for this would be the enlargement of the EU.
Overall we can see that while in 2007, the most common non-UK country of birth for women having a birth in the UK was Pakistan, with approximately 18 thousand births, by 2011, Poland had become the most common non-UK country of birth, with approximately 23 thousand, nearly a fifth more than Pakistan.