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Consumer Price Inflation Detailed Briefing Note, December 2013 (HTML Version) This product is designated as National Statistics

Released: 21 January 2014 Download PDF

Summary

Consumer Prices Index (CPI)

The CPI is a measure of consumer price inflation produced to international standards and in line with European regulations. First published in 1997 as the Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP), the CPI is the inflation measure used in the Government’s target for inflation.

The CPI is also used for purposes such as uprating pensions, wages and benefits and can aid in the understanding of inflation on family budgets. For more information on the uses of the CPI see the article 'Users and uses of consumer price inflation statistics'.

  • The all items CPI is 127.5, up from 127.0 in November.

  • The all items CPI annual rate is 2.0%, down from 2.1% in November.

  • The annual rate for CPI excluding indirect taxes, CPIY, is 2.1%, down from 2.2% last month.

  • The annual rate for CPI at constant tax rates, CPI-CT, is 1.9%, down from 2.0% last month.

  • The CPI all goods index is 122.2, up from 121.6 in November.

  • The CPI all goods index annual rate is 1.7%, up from 1.6% last month.

  • The CPI all services index is 134.2, up from 133.7 in November.

  • The CPI all services index annual rate is 2.4%, down from 2.6% last month.

CPIH

CPIH is a measure of UK consumer price inflation that includes owner occupiers’ housing costs (OOH). These are the costs of housing services associated with owning, maintaining and living in one’s own home. OOH does not include costs such as utility bills and minor repairs and maintenance which are already included in the index. CPIH uses an approach called rental equivalence to measure OOH. Rental equivalence uses the rent paid for an equivalent house as a proxy for the costs faced by an owner occupier. In other words this answers the question “how much would I have to pay in rent to live in a home like mine?” for an owner occupier. OOH does not seek to capture increases in house prices. Although, this may be inconsistent with some users’ expectations of measures of OOH, the inclusion of an asset price and therefore capital gains makes the measure less suitable for a measure of consumption. OOH currently accounts for just over 12% of the expenditure weight of CPIH. This has increased gradually from a weight of 10% in 2005.

Currently, the method of calculation, the population coverage and the basket of goods and services are the same as the Consumer Prices Index (CPI), with the exception of OOH. The method of deriving the weights for CPIH and the data used for these are also the same as for CPI, with the exception of OOH. This can result in some differences from the CPI.

On 21 November 2013, the UK Statistics Authority confirmed the designation of CPIH as a National Statistic. This follows ONS implementing a number of enhancements set out by the Authority in its assessment of consumer price statistics (Statistics on Consumer Price Inflation), published on 25 July 2013. ONS has removed the experimental statistics classification from CPIH.

For further information on CPIH please see Introducing the new CPIH measure of Consumer Price Inflation, 2005 to 2012

  • The all items CPIH is 125.3, up from 124.8 in November. 

  • The all items CPIH annual rate is 1.9%, unchanged from last month.

  • The annual rate for CPIH excluding indirect taxes, CPIHY, is 2.0%, unchanged from last month.

  • The OOH component of CPIH is 108.0, up from 107.9 in November.

  • The OOH component annual rate is 1.0%, unchanged from last month.

  • The CPIH all goods index is 122.3, up from 121.7 in November.

  • The CPIH all goods index annual rate is 1.7%, up from 1.6% last month.

  • The CPIH all services index is 128.2, up from 127.8 in November.

  • The CPIH all services index annual rate is 2.1%, down from 2.2% last month.

Retail Prices Index (RPI) and RPIJ

In accordance with the Statistics and Registration Service Act 2007, the Retail Prices Index and its derivatives have been assessed against the Code of Practice for Official Statistics and found not to meet the required standard for designation as National Statistics. The full assessment report can be found on the UK Statistics Authority website.

The RPI is a long-standing measure of UK inflation that has historically been used for a wide range of purposes such as the indexation of pensions and rents and index-linked gilts. For further information on current and historic uses of the RPI please see the article 'Users and uses of consumer price inflation statistics'.

RPIJ is an improved variant of the Retail Prices Index which is calculated using formulae that meet international standards. The rationale for creating RPIJ was to give users a better alternative to the RPI if their needs were for a measure of inflation based on the same population, classifications, weights etc as the RPI. Currently, RPIJ also acts as an analytical series, in that it allows users to see the impact of using the Jevons (which meets international standards) in place of the Carli formula (which does not meet international standards) in the RPI. The use of the different formulae at the elementary aggregate level is currently the only difference between the two indices. ONS does not produce detailed goods and services indices for RPIJ.

On 21 November 2013, the UK Statistics Authority confirmed the designation of RPIJ as a National Statistic. This follows ONS implementing a number of enhancements set out by the Authority in its assessment of consumer price statistics (Statistics on Consumer Price Inflation), published on 25 July 2013. ONS has removed the experimental statistics classification from RPIJ. For further information on RPIJ please see Introducing the new RPIJ measure of Consumer Price Inflation, 1997 to 2012

  • The all items RPI is 253.4, up from 252.1 in November.

  • The all items RPI annual rate is 2.7%, up from 2.6% in November.

  • The all items RPIJ is 236.2, up from 235.1 in November.

  • The all items RPIJ annual rate is 2.0%, unchanged from last month.

  • The annual rate for RPIX, the all items RPI excluding mortgage interest payments (MIPs) index, is 2.8%, up from 2.7% last month.   

  • The all goods RPI is 199.0, up from 198.6 in November. 

  • The all goods RPI annual rate is 2.6%, up from 2.4% last month.

  • The all services RPI is 339.8, up from 336.5 in November.

  • The all services RPI annual rate is 3.0%, down from 3.1% in November.

  • The annual rate for RPIY, the all items RPI excluding MIPs and indirect taxes index, is 2.8%, unchanged from last month.

  • The Seasonally Adjusted RPIY (SARPIY) annual rate is 2.9%, unchanged from last month.

  • The Tax and Price Index (TPI) for December is 223.5, up from 222.2 in November.

  • The TPI annual rate is 1.7%, up from 1.6% last month. 

CPI summary

Contributions to change in the CPI annual rate

CPI COICOP DIVISIONS     Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
01: Food and non-alcoholic beverages 112 106 1.2 0.3 -0.10
02: Alcoholic beverages and tobacco 42 44 -1.1 -1.2 -0.01
03: Clothing and footwear 65 68 -1.5 -0.9 0.03
04: Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels 144 137 2.0 2.3 0.03
05: Furniture, household equipment and maintenance 61 59 1.3 1.7 0.03
06: Health 24 25 0.1 0.1 -
07: Transport 162 148 0.7 1.0 0.04
08: Communication 27 31 -0.1 0.4 0.02
09: Recreation and culture 134 141 -0.1 -0.4 -0.05
10: Education 19 21 - - -
11: Restaurants and hotels 114 117 - - -
12: Miscellaneous goods and services 96 103 - -0.2 -0.03

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Large downward effects came from:

  • Food & non-alcoholic beverages, where prices, overall, rose between November and December 2013 as they do between these months in most years. The rate of the rise was smaller than between the same two months in 2012 and was the smallest it has been since 2006. The downward contribution came from price movements for most foodstuffs and non-alcoholic beverages, with the largest contributions coming from price movements for fruit and meat. These downward contributions were partially offset by an upward contribution from prices for bread & cereals where the rate of price increases has accelerated. Looking over the longer term, inflation for food & non-alcoholic beverages has grown at a faster rate than overall inflation in each of the last eight years; and

  • Recreation & culture, where prices, overall, fell at a quicker rate between November and December 2013 than between the same two months in 2012. The downward contribution came from across the sector, with the largest contribution coming from prices for games, toys and hobbies – notably computer games, where there were reports of sales and price drops for games on older platforms.

A large upward effect came from:

  • Transport, where prices, overall rose at a quicker rate November and December 2013 than between the same two months in 2012. The majority of the upward contribution came from prices for petrol & diesel. Petrol prices rose by 0.5 pence per litre between November and December 2013 compared with a fall of 2.8 pence per litre between the same two months in 2012, to stand at 130.4 pence. Diesel prices rose by 0.8 pence per litre between November and December 2013 compared with a fall of 1.4 pence per litre between the same two months in 2013, to stand at 138.3 pence. The upward contribution was partially offset by air fares where prices increased between November and December 2013 as usual, but at a slower rate than in 2012.

The first tranche of the expected winter price increases for gas and electricity entered the index this month. The overall size of the price increase in December 2013 was slightly larger than a year earlier resulting in a small upward contribution to inflation.

CPI notable movements and annual average CPI 12-month changes

CPI notable movements

All items CPI Annual rate +2.0%, down from +2.1% last month
  Lowest since November 2009 (+1.9%)
All items CPI exc energy, food,  Annual rate +1.7%, down from +1.8% last month
alcohol and tobacco Also +1.7% in October 2013 and September 2009
  Last lower in June 2009 (+1.6%)
Food and non-alcoholic beverages Annual rate +1.9%, down from +2.8% last month
  Also +1.9% in June 2010
  Last lower in May 2010 (+1.8%)
Miscellaneous goods and services Annual rate +0.3%, down from +0.5% last month
  Never lower since official series began in January 1997
All goods Annual rate +1.7%, up from +1.6% last month
  Also +1.7% in October 2013
  Last higher in September 2013 (+2.1%)
All services Annual rate +2.4%, down from +2.6% last month
  Lowest since November 2009 (+2.3%)

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Annual average CPI 12-month changes

All items CPI Annual average +2.6%, down from +2.8% last year
  Lowest since 2009 (+2.2%)
Food and non-alcoholic beverages Annual average +3.8%, up from +3.2% last year
  Highest since 2011 (+5.5%)
Alcoholic beverages and tobacco Annual average +6.2%, up from +6.0% last year
  Highest since 2011 (+8.7%)
Clothing and footwear Annual average +0.9%, up from +0.8% last year
  Highest since 2011 (+2.3%)
Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels Annual average +4.1%, down from +5.0% last year
  Lowest since 2010 (+0.4%)
Furniture, household equipment and routine maintenance Annual average +0.7%, down from +2.9% last year
  Lowest since 2006 (-0.4%)
Health Annual average +2.5%, down from +2.9% last year
  Lowest since 2004 (+1.8%)
Transport Annual average +1.0%, down from +2.3% last year
  Lowest since 2009 (+0.8%)
Communication Annual average +3.0%, down from +4.0% last year
  Lowest since 2009 (+1.0%)
Recreation and culture Annual average +1.1%, up from +0.2% last year
  Highest since 2010 (+1.9%)
Education Annual average +17.2%, up from +8.7% last year
  Never higher since official series began in January 1997
Restaurants and hotels Annual average +2.7%, down from +3.1% last year
  Lowest since 2009 (+2.4%)
Miscellaneous goods and services Annual average +1.0%, down from +2.3% last year
  Never lower since official series began in January 1997
All goods Annual average +2.0%, down from +2.3% last year
  Lowest since 2009 (+1.3%)
All services Annual average +3.2%, down from +3.5% last year
  Also +3.2% in 2009
  Never lower since official series began in January 1997

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CPI detailed briefing

  • Weights are specified as parts per 1000 in the CPI.

01 Food & non-alcoholic beverages

      Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
01 Food & non-alcoholic beverages 112 106 1.2 0.3 -0.10

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  • Largest downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to food and, to a lesser extent, non-alcoholic beverages.

01.1 Food

    Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
01.1 Food 98 93 1.6 0.7 -0.09
01.1.1 Bread and cereals 17 16 0.4 1.4 0.02
01.1.2 Meat 22 21 1.9 0.3 -0.03
01.1.3 Fish 4 4 0.7 -1.1 -0.01
01.1.4 Milk, cheese and eggs 14 13 1.2 1.1 -
01.1.5 Oils and fats 2 2 2.4 -1.2 -0.01
01.1.6 Fruit 9 9 5.2 0.9 -0.04
01.1.7 Vegetables including potatoes 15 14 2.2 1.4 -0.01
01.1.8 Sugar, jam, syrups, chocolate and confectionery 12 11 -0.1 -0.1 -
01.1.9 Food products not elsewhere covered 3 3 1.1 0.2 -

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  • Large downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to fruit; and, to a lesser extent, meat; fish; oils and fats and vegetables including potatoes.

  • Partially offset by bread and cereals.

Bread and cereals

  • Small upward effect.

  • Prices overall rose this year by more than a year ago, with the main upward contributions coming from frozen pizzas and breakfast cereals.

Meat

  • Small downward effect.

  • Prices overall rose this year by less than a year ago, with the main downward contribution coming from individual meat pies.

Fish

  • Small downward effect. 

  • Prices overall fell this year but rose a year ago, particularly for fresh salmon fillets.

Oils and fats 

  • Small downward effect.

  • Prices overall fell this year but rose a year ago.

Fruit

  • Large downward effect.  

  • Due to bananas and grapes. 

Bananas                              • Small downward effect.
                                               • Prices overall fell this year but rose a year ago.  
Grapes                                 • Small downward effect. 
                                               • Prices overall rose this year by less than a year ago.                  

Vegetables including potatoes

  • Small downward effect.

  • Due to old white potatoes and cucumbers.

  • Partially offset by courgettes.

Old white potatoes           • Small downward effect.
                                             • Prices overall fell this year but rose a year ago.   
Cucumbers                        • Small downward effect. 
                                             • Prices overall rose this year by less than a year ago.
Courgettes                         • Small upward effect. 
                                             • Prices overall rose this year by more than a year ago. 
                                          

01.2 Non-alcoholic beverages

    Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
01.2 Non-alcoholic beverages 14 13 -1.0 -2.0 -0.01
01.2.1 Coffee, tea and cocoa 4 3 -0.5 -4.8 -0.01
01.2.2 Mineral waters, soft drinks and juices 10 10 -1.2 -1.2 -

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to coffee, tea and cocoa; where prices overall fell this year by more than a year ago, with the main downward contribution coming from instant coffee.  Partially offset by a small upward contribution from smaller packets of tea bags, where prices fell this year by less than a year ago.

02 Alcoholic beverages and tobacco

    Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
02 Alcoholic beverages and tobacco 42 44 -1.1 -1.2 -0.01

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

02.1 Alcoholic beverages

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
02.1 Alcoholic beverages 18 20 -3.2 -2.9 -
02.1.1 Spirits 5 6 -4.7 -2.7 0.01
02.1.2 Wine 9 9 -3.7 -4.0 -
02.1.3 Beer 4 5 -0.1 -1.2 -0.01

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.   

  • There is a small upward contribution from spirits, where prices overall fell this year by less than a year ago, particularly for whisky.

  • Offset by a small downward contribution from beer, where prices overall fell this year by more than a year ago, with the main downward contribution coming from larger cases of cans of lager.

02.2 Tobacco

   Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
02.2 Tobacco 24 24 0.3 0.1 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.  

03 Clothing and footwear

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
03 Clothing and footwear 65 68 -1.5 -0.9 0.03

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to clothing.

  • Partially offset by footwear.

03.1 Clothing

  Weight 2012   Weight 2013   1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
03.1 Clothing 56 59 -1.5 -0.8 0.04
03.1.2 Garments 52 54 -1.6 -0.9 0.04
03.1.3 Other clothing and clothing accessories 3 4 -0.6 -0.1 -
03.1.4 Cleaning, repair and hire of clothing 1 1 0.6 0.6 -

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  • Large upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.  

  • Due to garments, where prices overall fell this year by less than a year ago, with the main upward contributions coming from women’s clothing such as trousers, dresses and casual jackets and girl’s fashion tops.

  • Partially offset by a downward contribution from men’s casual trousers.

03.2 Footwear including repairs

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
03.2 Footwear including repairs 9 9 -1.1 -1.6 -0.01

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Prices overall fell this year by more than a year ago.

04 Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
04 Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels 144 137 2.0 2.3 0.03

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to electricity, gas and other fuels; and, regular maintenance and repair of the dwelling.

04.1 Actual rentals for housing

   Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
04.1 Actual rentals for housing 64 62 0.1 0.1 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

04.3 Regular maintenance and repair of the dwelling

   Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
04.3 Regular maintenance and repair of the dwelling 14 16 -0.3 0.2 0.01
04.3.1 Materials for maintenance and repair 8 9 -0.5 0.4 0.01
04.3.2 Services for maintenance and repair 6 7 - - -

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to materials for maintenance and repair; where prices overall rose this year but fell a year ago, with the main upward contribution coming from softwood.

04.4 Other services related to the dwelling

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
04.4 Other services related to the dwelling 10 11 - - -
04.4.1 Water supply 5 6 - - -
04.4.3 Sewerage collection 5 5 - - -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change. 

04.5 Electricity, gas and other fuels

   Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
04.5 Electricity, gas and other fuels 56 48 5.1 6.4 0.03
04.5.1 Electricity 20 19 5.0 6.5 0.03
04.5.2 Gas 32 26 5.3 6.7 0.01
04.5.3 Liquid fuels 3 2 5.1 2.9 -0.01
04.5.4 Solid fuels 1 1 0.5 0.2 -

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.   

  • Due to electricity and gas.

  • Partially offset by liquid fuels.

Electricity

  • Small upward effect.

  • Average electricity bills rose this year by more than a year ago, with a number of anticipated price increases entering the index this month.

Gas

  • Small upward effect.

  • Average gas bills rose this year by more than a year ago, with a number of anticipated price increases entering the index this month.

Liquid fuels 

  • Small downward effect.

  • Kerosene prices rose this year by less than a year ago.

05 Furniture, household equipment and maintenance

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
05 Furniture, household equipment and maintenance 61 59 1.3 1.7 0.03

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to furniture, furnishings and carpets; and, household appliances, fitting and repairs.

05.1 Furniture, furnishings and carpets

     Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
05.1 Furniture, furnishings and carpets 20 20 2.6 3.4 0.02
05.1.1 Furniture and furnishings 16 16 1.8 3.8 0.03
05.1.2 Carpets and other floor coverings 4 4 5.9 1.9 -0.02

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to furniture and furnishings; partially offset by carpets and other floor coverings.

Furniture and Furnishings

  • Small upward effect.

  • Prices overall rose this year by more than a year ago, particularly for leather settees.

Carpets and other floor coverings

  • Small downward effect.

  • Prices overall rose this year by less than a year ago, particularly for tufted carpet.

05.2 Household textiles

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
05.2 Household textiles 7 8 0.9 0.7 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.  

05.3 Household appliances, fitting and repairs

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
05.3 Household appliances, fitting and repairs 9 9 1.0 1.6 0.01
05.3.1/2 Major appliances and small electric goods 8 8 1.1 1.8 0.01
05.3.3 Repair of household appliances 1 1 - 0.2 -

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to major appliances and small electric goods; where prices rose this year by more than a year ago, particularly for washing machines.  

05.4 Glassware, tableware and household utensils

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
05.4 Glassware, tableware and household utensils 5 5 -0.2 0.3 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

05.5 Tools and equipment for house and garden

     Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
05.5 Tools and equipment for house and garden 5 4 -0.1 -0.3 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change. 

05.6 Goods and services for routine maintenance

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
05.6 Goods and services for routine maintenance 15 13 0.6 1.0 -
05.6.1 Non-durable household goods 6 5 1.4 2.3 -
05.6.2 Domestic services and household services 9 8 0.1 0.3 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change. 

06 Health

     Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
06 Health 24 25 0.1 0.1 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

06.1 Medical products, appliances and equipment

    Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
06.1 Medical products, appliances and equipment 10 10 0.1 - -
06.1.1 Pharmaceutical products 6 6 0.3 - -
06.1.2/3 Other medical and therapeutic equipment 4 4 -0.2 0.1 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

06.2 Out-patient services

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
06.2 Out-patient services 5 6 0.2 - -
06.2.1/3 Medical and paramedical services 3 3 0.4 0.1 -
06.2.2 Dental services 2 3 0.1 - -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.  

06.3 Hospital services

     Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
06.3 Hospital Services 9 9 - 0.2 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

07 Transport

   Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
07 Transport 162 148 0.7 1.0 0.04

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  • Largest upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.  

  • Due to operation of personal transport equipment.

  • Partially offset by transport services.   

07.1 Purchase of vehicles

   Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
07.1 Purchase of vehicles 43 38 -0.1 -0.1 -
07.1.1A New cars 24 21 0.4 0.1 -0.01
07.1.1B Second-hand cars 16 14 -0.9 - 0.02
07.1.2/3 Motorcycles and bicycles 3 3 -0.1 -1.5 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • There was a small downward contribution from new cars, where prices overall rose this year by less than a year ago.

  • Offset by a small upward contribution from second-hand cars, where prices overall were little changed this year but fell a year ago.

07.2 Operation of personal transport equipment

   Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
07.2 Operation of personal transport equipment 89 81 -0.9 0.2 0.09
07.2.1 Spare parts and accessories 5 5 -0.9 0.3 0.01
07.2.2 Fuels and lubricants 46 40 -1.8 0.5 0.10
07.2.3 Maintenance and repairs 22 22 0.3 -0.1 -0.01
07.2.4 Other services 16 14 0.1 - -

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  • Large upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to fuels and lubricants; and, to a lesser extent, spare parts and accessories.

  • Partially offset by maintenance and repairs.

Spare parts and accessories

  • Small upward effect.

  • Prices overall rose this year but fell a year ago.

Fuels and lubricants

  • Large upward effect.

  • The average price of petrol across the month, as recorded for the CPI, rose by 0.5 pence per litre between November and December 2013 to stand at 130.4 pence per litre.

  • Last year, the average price of petrol fell by 2.8 pence per litre between November and December 2012 to stand at 132.3 pence per litre.

  • The average price of diesel rose by 0.8 pence per litre between November and December 2013 to stand at 138.3 pence per litre, compared with a fall of 1.4 pence last year to stand at 140.3 pence per litre.

Maintenance and repairs

  • Small downward effect.

  • Prices overall fell this year but rose a year ago, with the main downward contribution coming from exhaust fitting.

07.3 Transport services

    Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
07.3 Transport services 30 29 6.6 4.7 -0.06
07.3.1 Passenger transport by railway 9 9 - - -
07.3.2 Passenger transport by road 12 13 0.2 0.9 0.01
07.3.3 Passenger transport by air 8 6 21.9 19.8 -0.06
07.3.4 Passenger transport by sea and inland waterway 1 1 13.7 1.2 -0.01

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  • Large downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.  

  • Due to passenger transport by air; and, to a lesser extent, passenger transport by sea and inland waterway.

  • Partially offset by passenger transport by road.

Passenger transport by road

  • Small upward effect.

  • Prices overall rose this year by more than a year ago, particularly for coach fares.

Passenger transport by air

  • Large downward effect.

  • Average air fares rose this year by less than a year ago, with the main downward contribution coming from long haul flights.

  • Partially offset by a small upward contribution coming from European flights, where prices rose this year by more than a year ago.

Passenger transport by sea and inland waterway

  • Small downward effect.

  • Average sea fares rose this year by less than a year ago, particularly for international routes.

08 Communication

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
08 Communication 27 31 -0.1 0.4 0.02

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to telephone equipment and services.   

08.1 Postal services

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
08.1 Postal services 1 2 - - -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.    

08.2/3 Telephone equipment and services

    Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
08.2/3 Telephone equipment and services 26 29 -0.1 0.4 0.02

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Prices overall rose this year but fell a year ago, particularly for bundled telecommunication services.  

09 Recreation and culture

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
09 Recreation and culture 134 141 -0.1 -0.4 -0.05

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  • Large downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to audio-visual equipment and related products; other recreational items, gardens and pets; and books, newspapers and stationery. 

  • Partially offset by recreational and cultural services.

09.1 Audio-visual equipment and related products

    Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
09.1 Audio-visual equipment and related products 23 23 0.8 -0.4 -0.03
09.1.1 Equipment for the reception and reproduction of sound and pictures 6 6 -1.8 0.2 0.01
09.1.2 Photographic, cinematographic and optical equipment 4 3 0.8 -4.7 -0.02
09.1.3 Data processing equipment 6 7 1.6 -2.1 -0.02
09.1.4 Recording media 6 6 2.6 3.0 -
09.1.5 Repair of audio-visual equipment and related products 1 1 - -0.2 -

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to photographic, cinematographic and optical equipment; and, data processing equipment.

  • Partially offset by equipment for the reception and reproduction of sound and pictures.

Equipment for the reception and reproduction of sound and pictures

  • Small upward effect.

  • Prices overall rose this year but fell a year ago.

Photographic, cinematographic and optical equipment

  • Small downward effect.

  • Prices overall fell this year but rose a year ago, with the main downward contributions coming from digital cameras and digital camcorders.

Data processing equipment

  • Small downward effect.

  • Prices overall fell this year but rose a year ago, particularly for PC peripherals.

09.2 Other major durables for recreation and culture

   Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
09.2.1/2 Major durables for in/outdoor recreation 10 9 - - -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

09.3 Other recreational items, gardens and pets

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
09.3 Other recreational items, gardens and pets 35 32 -0.7 -1.4 -0.02
09.3.1 Games, toys and hobbies 20 19 0.2 -2.3 -0.05
09.3.2 Equipment for sport and open-air recreation 3 3 -1.3 -0.2 -
09.3.3 Gardens, plants and flowers 4 4 -6.5 0.3 0.03
09.3.4/5 Pets, related products and services 8 6 0.7 -0.3 -0.01

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.     

  • Due to games, toys and hobbies; and, pets, related products and services.

  • Partially offset by gardens, plants and flowers.

Games, toys and hobbies

  • Large downward effect.

  • Prices overall fell this year but rose a year ago, with the main downward contributions coming from both internet and shop bought computer games, board games and craft kits.

  • Partially offset by a small upward contribution coming from children’s soft toys, where prices rose this year but fell a year ago.

Gardens, plants and flowers

  • Small upward effect.

  • Prices overall rose this year but fell a year ago, with the main upward contribution coming from potted shrubs.

Pets, related products and services

  • Small downward effect.

  • Prices overall fell this year but rose a year ago, particularly for complete dry dog food.

09.4 Recreational and cultural services

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
09.4 Recreational and cultural services 29 29 -0.7 -0.2 0.01
09.4.1 Recreational and sporting services 8 9 0.1 0.1 -
09.4.2 Cultural services 21 20 -1.0 -0.3 0.01

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.   

  • Due to cultural services, where average theatre ticket prices fell this year by less than a year ago.  

09.5 Books, newspapers and stationery

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
09.5 Books, newspapers and stationery 13 14 0.9 -0.3 -0.02
09.5.1 Books 3 4 2.6 -1.7 -0.02
09.5.2 Newspapers and periodicals 5 5 -0.6 -0.5 -
09.5.3/4 Misc. printed matter, stationery, drawing materials 5 5 1.3 1.1 -

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to books, where prices overall fell this year but rose a year ago, with the main downward contribution coming from non-fiction hardcover books.

09.6 Package holidays

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
09.6 Package holidays 24 34 0.2 0.1 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

10 Education

    Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
10 Education 19 21 - - -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

11 Restaurants and hotels

   Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
11 Restaurants and hotels 114 117 - - -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.       

11.1 Catering services

   Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
11.1 Catering services 97 98 0.2 0.2 -
11.1.1 Restaurants and cafes 86 88 0.2 0.2 -
11.1.2 Canteens 11 10 0.2 0.2 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

11.2 Accommodation services

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
11.2 Accommodation services 17 19 -0.8 -0.9 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

12 Miscellaneous goods and services

     Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
12 Misc. goods and services 96 103 - -0.2 -0.03

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to personal care; insurance; and, other services not elsewhere covered.

12.1 Personal care

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
12.1 Personal care 28 28 -0.2 -0.9 -0.02
12.1.1 Hairdressing and personal grooming establishments 8 7 0.2 0.3 -
12.1.2/3 Appliances and products for personal care 20 21 -0.4 -1.3 -0.02

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to appliances and products for personal care; where prices overall fell this year by more than a year ago, with the main downward contributions coming from toilet rolls, deodorant, shower gel, toothbrushes and lip gloss. Partially offset by small upward contributions coming from electric razors and tissues.

12.3 Personal effects not elsewhere covered

   Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
12.3 Personal effects not elsewhere covered 13 13 -0.7 -0.5 -
12.3.1 Jewellery, clocks and watches 8 8 -0.5 0.1 0.01
12.3.2 Other personal effects 5 5 -1.0 -1.4 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

12.4 Social protection

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
12.4 Social protection 13 14 0.2 0.1 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.           

12.5 Insurance

    Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
12.5 Insurance 8 8 2.0 0.9 -0.01
12.5.2 House contents insurance 3 2 1.8 0.2 -0.01
12.5.3 Health insurance 2 2 - - -
12.5.4 Transport insurance 3 4 3.8 1.7 -

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to average premiums for house contents insurance rising this year by less than a year ago.

12.6 Financial services not elsewhere covered

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
12.6 Financial services not elsewhere covered 23 30 - - -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

12.7 Other services not elsewhere covered

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to CPI annual rate change
12.7 Other services not elsewhere covered 11 10 0.3 -0.1 -0.01

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Charges overall fell this year but rose a year ago.

RPI summary

Contributions to the change in the RPI annual rate

GROUPS      Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
FOOD 114 116 1.0 0.2 -0.08
CATERING 47 47 0.2 0.3 -
ALCOHOLIC DRINKS 56 61 -1.0 -0.9 -
TOBACCO 29 30 0.3 0.1 -0.01
HOUSING 237 254 0.2 0.1 -0.01
FUEL AND LIGHT 46 43 5.1 6.2 0.04
HOUSEHOLD GOODS 62 60 1.8 2.1 0.02
HOUSEHOLD SERVICES 67 62 0.2 0.2 -
CLOTHING AND FOOTWEAR 45 43 -1.2 -0.6 0.03
PERSONAL GOODS AND SERVICES 39 40 -0.1 -0.3 -0.01
MOTORING EXPENDITURE 131 122 -0.1 0.7 0.10
FARES AND OTHER TRAVEL COSTS 23 18 5.3 3.7 -0.05
LEISURE GOODS 33 30 -0.6 -0.8 -
LEISURE SERVICES 71 74 -0.2 - 0.01

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RPI notable movements and annual average RPI 12-month changes

RPI notable movements

All items RPI Annual rate +2.7%, up from +2.6% last month
  Highest since September 2013 (+3.2%)
All items RPI exc MIPS (RPIX) Annual rate +2.8%, up from +2.7% last month
  Highest since September 2013 (+3.2%)
All items RPI exc MIPS and indirect Annual rate +2.8%, unchanged from last month
taxes (RPIY) Last higher in September 2013 (+3.4%)
  Last lower in September 2012 (+2.6%)
Non seasonal food Annual rate +2.0%, down from +2.5% last month
  Also +2.0% in September 2012
  Last lower in June 2010 (+1.4%)
Personal goods and services Annual rate +1.7%, down from +1.8% last month
  Lowest since April 2005 (+1.6%)
All goods Annual rate +2.6%, up from +2.4% last month
  Highest since September 2013 (+2.9%)
All services Annual rate +3.0%, down from +3.1% last month
  Lowest since September 2012 (+2.8%)

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Annual average RPI 12-month changes

All items RPI Annual average +3.0%, down from +3.2% last year
  Lowest since 2009 (-0.5%)
All items RPI exc. MIPS (RPIX) Annual average +3.1%, down from +3.2% last year
  Lowest since 2009 (+2.0%)
All items RPI exc. MIPS  Annual average +3.2%, down from +3.3% last year
& Indirect Taxes (RPIY) Lowest since 2009 (+2.8%)
Food Annual average +3.7%, up from +3.2% last year
  Highest since 2011 (+5.9%)
Catering Annual average +2.7%, down from +3.1% last year
  Also +2.7% in 2009, 2006 and 2004
  Never lower since official series began in 1969
Alcoholic drink Annual average +3.0%, down from +3.3% last year
  Also +3.0% in 2007
  Last lower in 2006 (+2.4%)
Tobacco Annual average +7.7%, down from +8.5% last year
  Lowest since 2010 (+7.6%)
Housing Annual average +2.1%, up from +1.9% last year
  Highest since 2010 (+2.7%)
Fuel and light Annual average +7.0% down from +7.6% last year
  Lowest since 2010 (-2.7%)
Household goods Annual average +2.3%, down from +3.8% last year
  Also +2.3% in 2007
  Last lower in 2006 (+1.3%)
Household services Annual average +5.9%, up from +4.1% last year
  Highest since 1991 (+8.3%)
Clothing and footwear Annual average +8.3%, up from +7.7% last year
  Highest since 2011 (+11.5%) 
Personal goods and services Annual average +2.4%, down from +3.4% last year
  Lowest since 2005 (+1.9%)
Motoring expenditure Annual average -0.1%, down from +0.8% last year
  Lowest since 2009 (-0.7%)

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RPI detailed briefing

In accordance with the Statistics and Registration Service Act 2007, the Retail Prices Index and its derivatives have been assessed against the Code of Practice for Official Statistics and found not to meet the required standard for designation as National Statistics. ONS consulted in March 2013 on whether to maintain this detailed RPI briefing and, based on views received, decided to continue with its publication.

  • Weights are specified as parts per 1000 in the RPI.

Food

     Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
FOOD 114 116 1.0 0.2 -0.08

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  • Largest downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to non-seasonal food and, to a lesser extent, seasonal food.  

Seasonal food

     Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
SEASONAL FOOD 19 20 3.1 1.3 -0.03
Home killed lamb 1 1 -3.7 4.0 0.01
Fresh fish 2 2 0.3 1.8 -
Eggs 1 1 0.6 1.9 -
Unprocessed potatoes 2 2 3.1 -4.9 -0.02
Other fresh vegetables 7 7 2.6 3.5 0.01
Fresh fruit 6 7 5.9 0.6 -0.03

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change. 

  • Due to:

  • Fresh fruit, where prices overall rose this year by less than a year ago, with the main downward contributions coming from bananas and grapes; and

  • Unprocessed potatoes, where prices overall fell this year but rose a year ago, with the main downward contribution coming from old white potatoes.

  • Partially offset by:

  • Home killed lamb, where prices overall rose this year but fell a year ago, particularly for lamb joints; and

  • Other fresh vegetables, where prices overall rose this year by more than a year ago, particularly for courgettes.  Partially offset by cucumbers, where prices rose this year by less than a year ago.

Non-seasonal food

     Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
NON-SEASONAL FOOD 95 96 0.5 - -0.05
Bread 4 5 0.1 -1.1 -0.01
Cereals 4 4 0.9 0.4 -
Biscuits and cakes 7 7 1.8 1.9 -
Beef 4 4 1.3 -0.5 -0.01
Imported lamb 1 1 8.4 2.9 -
Pork 1 1 3.3 0.7 -
Bacon 2 2 1.9 1.0 -
Poultry 4 4 0.6 -0.8 -0.01
Other meat 7 7 2.5 0.3 -0.02
Processed fish 2 2 1.3 -2.7 -0.01
Butter 1 1 0.7 2.4 -
Oils and fats 2 2 3.2 -3.1 -0.01
Cheese 4 3 -0.5 -0.2 -
Milk, fresh 4 4 1.5 0.2 -0.01
Milk products 4 4 2.5 2.7 -
Tea 1 1 -2.8 -3.4 -
Soft drinks 11 12 -1.2 -1.2 -
Sugar and preserves 1 1 2.6 -0.6 -
Sweets and chocolates 11 13 -0.4 0.5 0.01
Potato products 3 3 1.1 1.1 -
Processed vegetables 2 2 1.0 -1.1 -
Processed fruit 2 1 -0.2 0.2 -
Other foods 11 11 -1.2 0.6 0.02
Coffee and other hot drinks 2 1 0.7 -6.0 -0.01

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  • Large downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to:

  • Other meat and fresh milk, where prices overall rose this year by less than a year ago, with the main downward contributions coming from individual meat pies, frozen chicken nuggets and shop bought whole milk; and

  • Bread, beef, poultry, processed fish, oils and fats and coffee and other hot drinks, where prices overall fell this year but rose a year ago, with the main downward contributions coming from frozen fish fingers, olive oil and instant coffee.

  • Partially offset by other foods and sweets and chocolates, where prices overall rose this year but fell a year ago, with the main upward contributions coming from frozen pizza, chilled ready meals and cartons/boxes of chocolates.  Partially offset by small downward contributions from cook-in-sauces and bags of chocolate sweets. 

Catering

     Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
CATERING 47 47 0.2 0.3 -
Restaurant meals 27 27 0.2 0.4 -
Canteen meals 3 4 - 0.3 -
Take-away meals and snacks 17 16 0.2 0.1 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

Alcoholic drinks

    Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
ALCOHOLIC DRINKS 56 61 -1.0 -0.9 -
Beer on sales 21 21 0.2 0.1 -
Beer off sales 5 5 -0.4 -0.7 -
Wines and spirits on sales 16 20 0.1 0.3 -
Wines and spirits off sales 14 15 -4.5 -4.1 -

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.  

Tobacco

   Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
TOBACCO 29 30 0.3 0.1 -0.01
Cigarettes 25 26 0.3 0.2 -
Other tobacco products 4 4 0.3 -0.1 -

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change. 

  • Prices overall rose this year by less than a year ago.      

Housing

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
HOUSING 237 254 0.2 0.1 -0.01
Rent 75 86 0.2 0.1 -
Mortgage interest payments 29 29 0.8 0.2 -0.02
Council tax and rates 41 43 - - -
Water and other charges 13 14 - - -
Repairs and maintenance charges 9 10 - - -
DIY materials 8 7 -0.3 - -
Dwelling insurance and ground rent 6 7 2.1 0.4 -0.01
House depreciation 56 58 0.1 0.3 0.01

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to:

  • Mortgage interest payments, where average charges rose this year by less than a year ago; and

  • Dwelling insurance and ground rent, where average premiums for dwelling insurance rose this year by less than a year ago.

  • Partially offset by a small upward contribution from house depreciation, with the smoothed house price index used to calculate this component rising this year by more than a year ago.

Fuel and light

    Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
FUEL AND LIGHT 46 43 5.1 6.2 0.04
Coal and solid fuels 1 1 0.5 0.2 -
Electricity 21 20 5.0 6.5 0.03
Gas 21 19 5.4 6.9 0.02
Oil and other fuels 3 3 4.4 2.4 -0.01

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  • Large upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to electricity and gas, where average charges rose this year by more than a year ago, with a number of the anticipated price increases entering the index this month.

  • Partially offset by a small downward contribution from oil and other fuels, where average prices for kerosene rose this year by less than a year ago.

Household goods

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
HOUSEHOLD GOODS 62 60 1.8 2.1 0.02
Furniture 22 21 2.3 4.8 0.05
Furnishings 9 9 4.8 1.4 -0.03
Electrical appliances 6 6 -0.4 0.1 -
Other household equipment 4 4 -0.1 0.1 -
Household consumables 13 12 0.9 0.9 -
Pet care 8 8 0.7 -0.5 -0.01

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to furniture, where prices overall rose this year by more than a year ago, with the main upward contributions coming from dining room furniture, book cases and leather and non-leather suites.  Partially offset by a small downward contribution from self assembly kitchen units.

  • Partially offset by:

  • Furnishings, where prices overall rose this year by less than a year ago, particularly for tufted carpet; and 

  • Pet care, where prices overall fell this year but rose a year ago, particularly for complete dry dog food.

Household services

   Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
HOUSEHOLD SERVICES 67 62 0.2 0.2 -
Domestic services 13 13 0.2 0.2 -
Fees and subscriptions 29 24 0.5 - -0.01
Postage 1 1 - - -
Telephone charges 24 24 -0.1 0.4 0.01

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • There was a small downward contribution from fees and subscriptions, where charges overall remained little changed this year but rose a year ago, with the main downward contribution coming from house contents insurance.

  • Offset by a small upward contribution from telephone charges, where average charges rose this year but fell a year ago, particularly for mobile phone applications and bundled telecommunication services.

Clothing and footwear

  Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
CLOTHING AND FOOTWEAR 45 43 -1.2 -0.6 0.03
Men’s outerwear 9 9 0.3 0.6 -
Women’s outerwear 16 16 -2.7 -1.3 0.03
Children’s outerwear 5 5 -0.7 0.7 0.01
Other clothing 6 5 0.2 -0.2 -
Footwear 9 8 -0.8 -1.6 -0.01

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to:

  • Women’s outerwear, where prices overall fell this year by less than a year ago, with the main upward contributions coming from women’s casual trousers and jackets; and

  • Children’s outerwear, where prices overall rose this year but fell a year ago, particularly for girl’s fashion tops.

  • Partially offset by footwear, where prices overall fell this year by more than a year ago.

Personal goods & services

     Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
PERSONAL GOODS & SERVICES 39 40 -0.1 -0.3 -0.01
Personal articles 10 10 -0.7 -0.1 0.01
Chemists' goods 15 15 - -0.8 -0.01
Personal services 14 15 0.1 0.1 -

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  • Small downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to chemists’ goods, where prices fell this year but were little changed a year ago, with downward contributions coming from a wide range of products.  Partially offset by a small upward contribution from tissues.

  • Partially offset by a small upward contribution from personal articles, where prices overall fell this year by less than a year ago. 

Motoring expenditure

    Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
MOTORING EXPENDITURE 131 122 -0.1 0.7 0.10
Purchase of motor vehicles 39 34 -0.3 - 0.02
Maintenance of motor vehicles 20 19 0.1 0.1 -
Petrol and oil 47 45 -1.6 0.8 0.11
Vehicle tax and insurance 25 24 3.0 1.7 -0.03

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  • Largest upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to:

  • Petrol and oil, where prices overall rose this year but fell a year ago. The price of petrol, as recorded for the RPI, rose by 1.1 pence per litre between November and December 2013, to stand at 130.8 pence per litre, compared with a fall of 2.5 pence per litre last year to stand at 132.6 pence per litre. Diesel prices rose by 1.3 pence per litre, to stand at 138.6 pence per litre in December 2013, compared with a fall of 0.9 pence per litre last year to stand at 140.8 pence per litre; and

  • Purchase of motor vehicles, where prices overall were little changed this year but fell a year ago, with the main upward contribution coming from used cars.

  • Partially offset by a small downward contribution from vehicle tax and insurance, where average premiums for car insurance rose this year by less than a year ago.

Fares and other travel costs

    Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
FARES AND OTHER TRAVEL COSTS 23 18 5.3 3.7 -0.05
Rail fares 6 6 - - -
Bus and coach fares 4 4 0.4 1.5 -
Other travel costs 13 8 9.1 7.4 -0.06

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  • Large downward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to other travel costs, where average charges rose this year by less than a year ago, particularly for air fares with the main downward contribution coming from long haul flights, partially offset by a small upward contribution from European flights.

Leisure goods

     Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
LEISURE GOODS 33 30 -0.6 -0.8 -
Audio-visual equipment 7 6 - -1.2 -0.01
CDs and tapes 3 3 1.9 1.5 -
Toys, photographic and sports goods 10 9 0.5 -1.8 -0.02
Books and newspapers 8 7 0.3 -0.8 -0.01
Gardening products 5 5 -6.4 0.4 0.04

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  • Negligible overall effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • There are small downward contributions from:

  • Toys, photographic and sports goods and books and newspapers, where prices overall fell this year but rose a year ago, with the main downward contributions coming from computer games and hardback non-fiction books; and

  • Audio-visual equipment, where prices overall fell this year but were little changed a year ago, with the main downward contribution coming from PC peripherals.

  • Offset by a large upward contribution from gardening products, where prices overall rose this year but fell a year ago, with the main upward contribution coming from potted shrubs.

Leisure services

     Weight 2012 Weight 2013 1 month % change Dec-12 1 month % change Dec-13 Contribution to RPI annual rate change
LEISURE SERVICES 71 74 -0.2 - 0.01
TV licence and rentals 12 13 - - -
Entertainment and other recreation 17 15 -1.2 -0.3 0.02
Foreign holidays 33 35 0.2 0.1 -
UK holidays 9 11 -0.1 -0.2 -

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  • Small upward effect on the all items 12-month rate change.

  • Due to entertainment and other recreation, where average charges for theatre tickets fell this year by less than a year ago.  

Reconciliation of CPI and RPI

(Table 5 of the Consumer Price Inflation Reference Tables) (1.25 Mb Excel sheet)

This table identifies the main factors contributing to the differences between the unrounded inflation rates for the CPI and the RPI. These differences are broken down into: mortgage interest payments, other housing components excluded from the CPI, other differences in the coverage of goods and services, and the formula effect. The final column titled ‘other differences including weights’ is derived as a residual.

The difference between the CPI and RPI unrounded annual rates in December 2013 was -0.65 percentage points, widening from -0.56 percentage points in November 2013.

The main factors contributing to the widening were:

  • Other differences including weights, which increased the RPI 12-month rate relative to the CPI 12-month rate by 0.08 percentage points between November and December 2013. The effect came mainly from prices for games, toys and hobbies and equipment for sport, camping and open air recreation, partially offset by insurance.

  • Formula effect, with the difference widening from -0.94 to -0.96 between November and December 2013. The effect came mainly from prices in the recreation and culture sector.

Partially offsetting this narrowing effect was:

  • Mortgage interest payments, which decreased the RPI 12-month rate in December by 0.02 percentage points but are excluded from the CPI.

RPI miscellaneous data

Selected average prices

Description                                October 2013 November 2013 December 2013
Petrol per litre Diesel £1.39 £1.37 £1.39
Petrol £1.32 £1.30 £1.31
Alcohol pub prices Draught bitter (pint) £2.88 £2.89 £2.89
Draught lager (pint) £3.31 £3.31 £3.32
Whisky (per nip) £2.47 £2.48 £2.49
Cigarettes Per 20 king size £7.94 £8.03 £8.04

Table notes:

  1. Average prices are as recorded for the RPI.

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Changes in Mortgage Interest Rates

This table gives an estimate of the contribution that changes in the average mortgage interest rate (MI) make to the 1-month percentage change in the RPI.

Changes in mortgage interest rates

Month     1-month % change in the RPI Approx. change in average MI rate Approx. contribution to the 1-month % change  in the RPI
December 2012 +0.5 Up +0.01% points +0.01% points
January 2013 -0.4 Down -0.01% points -0.01% points
February 2013 +0.7 Down -0.02% points -0.02% points
March 2013 +0.4 Negligible -
April 2013 +0.3 Negligible -
May 2013 +0.2 Negligible -
June 2013 -0.1 Down -0.02% points -0.02% points
July 2013 +0.0 Negligible -
August 2013 +0.5 Negligible -
September 2013 +0.4 Negligible -
October 2013 +0.0 Down -0.02% points -0.02% points
November 2013 +0.1 Down -0.02% points -0.02% points
December 2013 +0.5 Negligible -

Table notes:

  1. A one percentage point change in the average mortgage interest rate contributes approx 0.9 percentage points to the 1-month percentage change in the RPI.

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Outlook

The outlook is a summary of seasonal trends, selected news cuttings and other sources of information. It gives some indication of expected changes to the annual rate of the CPI and RPI in the next few months.

FOOD

Seasonal food
  • Seasonal food prices tend to fall in January.

Food

Seasonal food

Monthly % change for CPI seasonal food index  
Year November December January
2007/08 0.5 0.2 -0.5
2008/09 4.2 0.4 -0.5
2009/10 3.6 1.7 -0.2
2010/11 3.0 2.8 -1.1
2011/12 1.8 3.3 -1.6
2012/13 2.5 2.9 0.1
2013/14 -0.1 0.8  

Table notes:

  1. Seasonal food prices in the RPI tend to show a similar movement.

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CLOTHING AND FOOTWEAR

  • Prices for clothing and footwear tend to fall in January.   

Clothing and footwear

Monthly % change for CPI clothing and footwear index
Year November December January
2007/08 0.5 -0.8 -5.1
2008/09 - -4.2 -4.7
2009/10 0.6 -1.3 -5.7
2010/11 2.0 -1.9 -5.9
2011/12 1.2 -2.8 -4.9
2012/13 0.6 -1.5 -5.4
2013/14 0.7 -0.9

Table notes:

  1. The clothing and footwear group in the RPI exhibits a similar seasonal pattern.

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ELECTRICITY, GAS AND OTHER FUELS

  • E.ON has announced an average dual fuel price increase of 3.7%, effective from 18 January 2014. Electricity only prices will increase on average by 3.7% and gas only prices by 4.6%. (pressreleases.eon-uk.com 6 December 2013)

  • Following the Government’s announcement of proposals to reduce the impact of the energy company price rises (2 December 2013), the major energy suppliers have announced their intentions to pass the savings on to customers:

  • E.ON incorporated the savings into their announced increases. (pressreleases.eon_uk.com 6 December 2013)

  • EDF Energy incorporated the savings into their announced increases. (newsroom.edfenergy.com/News-Releases 6 December 2013)

  • Scottish Power will decrease standard domestic gas and electricity prices from 31 January 2014. The effect of this for a typical dual fuel customer is that prices will decrease by an average of 3.3%. (scottishpower.com/news 6 January 2014)

  • SSE plans to reduce its household energy prices before the end of its financial year.  The overall impact of the proposed changes, including the rebate which is expected to apply in autumn 2014, should lead to a typical dual fuel customer benefiting by around 4%. (sse.com 2 December 2013)

  • British Gas is reducing household gas and electricity prices by an average of 3.2%, taking effect from 1 January 2014. (britishgas.presscentre.com 2 December 2013)

  • Npower has announced an average reduction in energy prices of 2.6% from 28 February 2014 for domestic customers who received an increase in December 2013. (bbc.co.uk 8 January 2014)

FURNITURE, HOUSEHOLD EQUIPMENT AND MAINTENANCE

  • Prices tend to fall in January.

Furniture, household equipment and maintenance

Monthly % change for CPI furniture, household equipment and maintenance index
Year November December January
2007/08 0.8 2.5 -4.1
2008/09 0.7 0.3 -2.8
2009/10 0.9 2.2 -3.1
2010/11 1.6 1.2 -1.9
2011/12 1.0 1.0 -2.2
2012/13 -0.1 1.3 -2.3
2013/14 -0.1 1.7

Table notes:

  1. The household goods group in the RPI exhibits a similar seasonal pattern.

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TRANSPORT

Fuels and Lubricants

  • Oil rebounded from days of declines to climb towards $107 a barrel on Friday, but gains were capped by speculation that strong US data could prompt the Federal Reserve to further taper its stimulus. (uk.reuters.com 10 January 2014)

  • When considering the price of petrol between December 2013 and January 2014, it may be useful to note that the average price of petrol remained unchanged between December 2012 and January 2013, to stand at 132.3 pence per litre as measured in the CPI.

  • A 1 pence change on average in the cost of a litre of motor fuel contributes approximately 0.03 percentage points to the 1-month change in the CPI.

Passenger transport by Air

  • Air fares tend to fall in January.  

Passenger transport by air

Monthly % change for CPI air fares index
Year November December January
2007/08 -13.3 26.6 -19.4
2008/09 -4.9 36.2 -27.3
2009/10 -2.6 41.7 -28.4
2010/11 -6.4 41.8 -30.9
2011/12 -7.5 40.9 -28.4
2012/13 -8.3 21.9 -20.5
2013/14 -8.1 19.8

Table notes:

  1. The air fares index used in the RPI is the same as that used in the CPI, and is included in the other travel costs section.

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HOUSING (RPI)

Mortgage interest payments (MIPs)

  • The Bank of England Bank Rate remained unchanged at 0.5% on Thursday 9 January 2014.

  • The change in average mortgage interest rates recorded in the RPI was -0.01% between December 2012 and January 2013. The Bank of England Bank Rate remained unchanged at 0.5% in December 2012.

  • A one percentage point change in the average mortgage interest rate contributes approximately 0.9 percentage points to the 1-month percentage change in the RPI.

Contacts

Media contact:

Tel: Luke Croydon  +44 (0) 845 6041858

Out of hours media line +44 (0) 7867 906553

Email: media.relations@ons.gsi.gov.uk

Statistical contact:

Tel: Richard Campbell +44 (0) 1633 651536

Email: richard.campbell@ons.gsi.gov.uk

Website: www.ons.gov.uk

Email: cpi@ons.gsi.gov.uk

CPI/RPI recorded message (available after 9.45 am on release day):

Tel: +44 (0) 1633 456961

CPI/RPI Enquiries:

Tel: +44 (0) 1633 456900

Background notes

  1. Details of the policy governing the release of new data are available by visiting www.statisticsauthority.gov.uk/assessment/code-of-practice/index.html or from the Media Relations Office email: media.relations@ons.gsi.gov.uk

    These National Statistics are produced to high professional standards and released according to the arrangements approved by the UK Statistics Authority.

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