In an increasingly complex and mobile society there is a need for population statistics to be produced more flexibly to accommodate a range of analyses; in addition to the usual residence base (where people usually live), one alternative output base is workday population (where people usually work, while those not working are recorded at their usual address). This story analyses data for the workday population by age, sex and geographical breakdown.
The largest gains from usually resident to workday populations were for City of London (56 fold increase) and Westminster (almost three fold increase).
Numerical increases in excess of 100,000 for workday population compared to usually resident population were seen in five local authorities (LAs): Westminster, City of London, Camden, Tower Hamlets and Manchester.
Eight of the twenty LAs experiencing the largest percentage decrease in workday population compared to their usually resident population were London boroughs on the periphery of the capital’s commercial centre containing residential zones for commuters.
Six inner London boroughs had workday population densities that exceeded the highest level of usually resident population density for LAs in England and Wales (111 persons per hectare in Islington). These were City of London, Westminster, Tower Hamlets, Camden, Islington and Kensington and Chelsea.
Sex ratios of workday populations can vary greatly compared to those of usually resident populations. The largest difference in 2011 was for North Warwickshire where the workday sex ratio was 133 males per 100 females, compared to 99 males per 100 females for its usually resident population. This reflects the area’s automotive and mining industries.
Within London there were large variations in age structure between workday and usually resident populations: age profiles were younger for workday populations in boroughs experiencing workday population gains, and older in those experiencing workday population losses.
Outside London there was less variation between the age profiles of workday and usually resident populations; workday population gains were more evenly spread across all working ages.
An infographic summarising this story is available on the ONS website.
The 2011 Census was designed to make it as clear as possible who should be counted in the enumeration base, and where. This permitted two main output bases to be produced: the first was the ‘usual residence’1 base for those present, or intending to be present, for 12 months or longer; the second was overseas short-term residents who were, or intended to be, present in the UK for between 3 and 12 months.
The 2011 Census was designed to be flexible enough to provide population outputs on a range of alternative population bases. These included:
Workday population, where the usually resident population is re-distributed to their places of work, while those not in work are recorded at their usual residence.
Work place population, where the usually resident population is re-distributed to their main place of work, but those not working are excluded.
Out of term population, where students who are counted in the usually resident base at their boarding school or university residence address are moved back to their family home (if they have one within the UK). This out of term base will be produced for the usually resident population, that is, those intending to be resident in the UK for 12 months or more.
This short story is the first of a series to be produced by ONS providing analyses of data on alternative population output bases. Later articles will explore the work place and out of term populations.
The workday population of England and Wales is not equal to the usually resident population of England and Wales, but is a subset of this population. Figure 1 shows who is included in and excluded from the workday population base. The workday population uses the place of main employment of a resident2.
The workday population includes:
People who are usually resident in England and Wales and in employment (aged 16 and over) with a fixed place of work (part-time or full-time) in England and Wales; when there is no fixed place of work, or work is mostly done from home, then the home address of the person is used for the workday population. The workday population will include shift and night workers such as hospital staff and security guards.
Those not working (including those under 16) are counted at their usual residence.
The workday population excludes:
Those who are not usually resident in England and Wales, but with a fixed place of work within England and Wales.
Those who are usually resident within England and Wales but work in Scotland, Northern Ireland or outside the UK or on an offshore installation.
Although 2011 Census tables for workday populations cover all ages, data for this short story has been extracted for ages 16 to 74 years to enable direct comparison with 2001 Census data. This story therefore focuses on the workday population aged 16 to 74 years. These data are derived from census tables released (40.5 Kb Excel sheet) on 31 October 2013.
In 2011 the total usually resident population of England and Wales was 56.1 million; the workday population was 56.0 million (figure 1). Those aged 16-74 years accounted for 73 per cent (41 million) of the usually resident population in 2011. In 2001, the equivalent 16-74 years population was 72 per cent (38 million)1 of the total usually resident population.
This short story analyses characteristics of the workday population in England and Wales at the time of the 2011 Census by:
Differences between the usually resident and workday populations
Comparing density of workday and usually resident populations in 2011
Age and sex profiles
Place of main employment is derived from Census question 40:
Figure 2 summarises the percentage differences between usually resident and workday populations for all 348 local authorities (LAs) in England and Wales in 2011. This shows that the majority (63 per cent or 220 LAs) had less than 10 per cent difference between their usually resident and workday populations. However, a further eight per cent (29 LAs) had workday populations at least 10 per cent greater than their usually resident populations, while the remaining 28 per cent1 (99 LAs) had workday populations at least 10 per cent lower than their usually resident populations.
Tables 1 and 2 show, respectively, the top twenty LAs with the greatest percentage increases and decreases in their workday populations in 2011 when compared to their usually resident populations, for the 16-74 years age group. In table 1, six of the top ten LAs with workday populations larger than their usually resident populations were London boroughs, with the City of London and Westminster at the top of the rankings by some distance. City of London showed a 56 fold increase compared to its usually resident population, and Westminster almost a three fold increase. These two London boroughs are important political and economic centres; City of London has very low levels of residential accommodation.
The four other London boroughs in the top ten contain important economic and commercial activity and several universities. Outside London, Crawley contains Gatwick Airport, one of the largest workplaces in the South of England, while Cambridge and Exeter, in addition to their respective universities, contain major employers such as the Met Office (Exeter) and a range of IT industries (Cambridge). Finally, Manchester is one of the major commercial centres of the North of England.
Those LAs ranked 11-20 include eight outside London; these include large centres across six different regions of the country, all of which attract large and diverse workday populations. These include cities such as Newcastle upon Tyne, Norwich, Nottingham, Oxford and Preston. The other two were London boroughs: Hillingdon (which includes Heathrow Airport) and Hammersmith and Fulham (an important commercial and broadcasting centre). The largest positive percentage difference in Wales was for Cardiff (15 per cent); overall, Cardiff ranked 23rd within England and Wales.
Differences between usually resident and workday population for 2001 are also shown in table 1 for comparison. City of London, Camden, Kensington and Chelsea, Exeter, Hammersmith and Fulham and Welwyn Hatfield all experienced increases in the percentage differences between usually resident and workday populations between 2001 and 2011; this is due to increases in the workday populations being greater than those of the usually resident population. North Warwickshire was the only LA in the top twenty to show a change in direction: a workday population three per cent smaller than its usually resident population in 2001 compared to a workday population 18 per cent larger than its usually resident population in 2011; this is likely to be the result of expanding automotive manufacturing in this area.
Westminster showed the largest relative decline in workday population gain between 2001 and 2011, even though it maintained its position as the LA with the second highest gain in workday population, after City of London. Other areas with the largest reduced proportional gains in workday populations in 2011 compared to 2001 were: Hillingdon, Manchester, Norwich and Nottingham, mainly as a result of increasing numbers of usual residents.
Sixteen of the top twenty LAs in 2011 were also in the top twenty in 2001; Cardiff, Leicester, Reading, and Southwark in 2001 were replaced in 2011 by Hammersmith and Fulham, North Warwickshire, Welwyn Hatfield and Winchester.
|Rank||Local Authority||Census 2011||Census 2001|
|Usually resident population age 16-74||Workday Population age 16-74||Percentage difference||Usually resident population age 16-74||Workday Population age 16-74||Percentage difference|
|1||City of London||6||358||5580||6||314||5075|
|9||Kensington and Chelsea||126||161||28||125||151||21|
|13||Newcastle upon Tyne||213||263||24||191||248||30|
|20||Hammersmith and Fulham||146||170||17||130||147||13|
In table 2, eight of the top twenty LAs in 2011 with the highest negative percentage differences for their workday populations relative to their usually resident populations were London boroughs on the periphery of the capital’s commercial centre, forming residential zones for commuters. A further four LAs were commuter areas for London located outside Greater London. The remaining eight LAs were residential areas for people working elsewhere, and were located in a number of different regions. The largest percentage decrease within Wales was the Vale of Glamorgan (15 per cent) ranked 44th within England and Wales; this is likely to be a result of commuters travelling into adjacent Cardiff.
Percentage differences for 2001 are also shown in table 2 for comparison. Changes between the two censuses were small; the greatest difference in the top twenty was for Croydon, which in 2001 saw a 12 per cent reduction from its usually resident population to its workday population. This had widened to a 20 per cent difference by 2011. This was predominantly due to an increase in the usually resident population.
Seventeen of the top twenty LAs in 2011 were also in the top twenty in 2001; however, Broadland, Epping Forest and Rushcliffe in 2001 were replaced in 2011 by Croydon, Gosport and Harrow.
|Rank||Local Authority||Census 2011||Census 2001|
|Usually resident population age 16-74||Workday Population age 16-74||Percentage difference||Usually resident population age 16-74||Workday Population age 16-74||Percentage difference|
|14||North East Derbyshire||73||58||-21||71||54||-24|
Table 3 shows the top twenty LAs with the highest numerical differences between usually resident and workday populations. There are similarities between tables 1 and 3, but table 3 highlights the large absolute workday increases found in Birmingham, Bristol, Cardiff, Leeds, Liverpool and Southwark, that when expressed as a percentage of their usually resident population are not large enough to appear in table 1. The top five LAs in table 3 each experienced a workday population increase in excess of 100,000; these were Westminster, City of London, Camden, Tower Hamlets and Manchester.
|Rank||Local Authority||Usually resident population age 16-74||Workday Population age 16-74||Numerical difference|
|2||City of London||6||358||352|
|10||Newcastle upon Tyne||213||263||50|
|14||Kensington and Chelsea||126||161||35|
Interactive maps showing the change from usually resident to workday populations for all LAs in England and Wales in 2011 are available.
Maps 1 and 2 summarise the percentage change between usually resident and workday populations for the 348s LAs in England and Wales for 2011 and 2001 respectively. Map 1 shows the gains in workday populations for major urban areas across England and Wales in 2011; in addition to London, most of the other larger cities in England and Wales are clearly represented. All of these LAs are found in table 1. There are also a number of LAs, many found in less urbanised parts of England and Wales, which experienced high levels of workday population gain; these may be explained partly by movement of working people daily from adjacent areas into LAs with settlements that, although not the largest cities, are nonetheless significant regional employers. For example LAs such as: Chichester (West Sussex), Hambleton (North Yorkshire), Peterborough (Cambridgeshire), Ribble Valley (Lancashire), South Hams (Devon) and West Dorset, although not in the top twenty as represented in table 1, all experienced workday gains.
Map 2 presents the equivalent data for 2001. Although the major urban centres are similarly represented as in 2011, there were a smaller number of LAs containing intermediate sized urban centres that showed the workday population increases noted for 2011. It would therefore appear that workday population gains in some areas outside the larger cities have become more significant since 2001, notably along parts of the south coast of England.
London inserts in maps 1 and 2 show the percentage change between usually resident and workday populations for London boroughs for 2011 and 2001 respectively. Both inserts show a clear divide, with increases from the usually resident to workday populations in eight central commercial boroughs and two boroughs in west London (the latter two reflecting Heathrow airport and related employment). Decreases are seen from the usually resident to workday populations in the remaining 23 boroughs.
Population density measures the number of persons per hectare in a given geographical area. From the 2011 Census data population densities were calculated for both the workday and usually resident populations aged 16-74. Table 4 shows the top twenty LAs with the highest workday population density with equivalent data for their usually resident population density in 2011.
The highest usually resident population density for all LAs in England and Wales was 111 persons per hectare for Islington. However, there were six inner London boroughs with workday populations that exceeded this level of density (City of London, Westminster, Tower Hamlets, Camden, Islington and Kensington and Chelsea).
For workday population density, 17 of the top 20 LAs were London boroughs. The five LAs with the highest workday population densities also had the greatest increases in density between their usually resident and workday populations. City of London had a workday population density (1236 persons per hectare) more than four times greater than the next highest, Westminster (300 persons per hectare). However, the usually resident population density for City of London was comparatively very low (22 persons per hectare).
The three non-London LAs with the highest workday population densities were Manchester, Portsmouth and Nottingham. All had relatively small differences (less than 10 persons per hectare) between their usually resident and workday population densities.
LAs with the 20 highest workday population densities included nine London boroughs with higher usually resident population densities; all nine were London boroughs adjacent to the inner London boroughs that experienced gains in workday population density. These included the five LAs with the greatest reductions in density between usually resident and workday populations in England and Wales (Wandsworth, Lewisham, Haringey, Waltham Forest and Lambeth).
For Wales, Cardiff had the highest workday population density at 21 persons per hectare; Cardiff also presented the largest gain in density between usually resident and workday populations in Wales, gaining 2 persons per hectare.
|Rank||Local Authority||Population density (persons per hectare aged 16-74)|
|Usually resident population||Workday population||Difference|
|1||City of London||22||1236||1215|
|6||Kensington and Chelsea||104||133||29|
|7||Hammersmith and Fulham||89||104||15|
Figures 3-8 show differences between the age and sex profiles of the usually resident and workday populations (age 16-74) for selected LAs1. The very large numeric increase in the workday population within the City of London (figure 3) can be seen. The workday population for City of London was more concentrated in the younger working ages: while around 28 per cent of the usually resident population aged 16-74 were aged 25-34 for both males and females, the 25-34 age group accounted for 36 and 43 per cent of the male and female workday populations respectively. This equates to a 77 fold increase in the 25-34 age group, compared with a 56 fold increase for the 16-74 population as a whole. A similar pattern is seen in Westminster (figure 3): the workday population aged 25-34 was over three times that of the usually resident population, greater than that for the 16-74 age group as a whole. The populations aged 16-74 within these two London boroughs were male dominated, with sex ratios of 133 and 105 males per 100 females for the usually resident populations of City of London and Westminster respectively. The workday populations were even more male dominated at 158 males per 100 females in City of London and 115 in Westminster.
Outside London the largest percentage increase in workday population was seen in Cambridge (figure 4). This LA had a very different age-sex profile compared to City of London and Westminster. Usually resident and workday populations were similar at younger ages due to a large proportion of this age group being students. Differences were more evenly spread across ages from the mid 20s to 65. Increase in the 25-34 age group (26 per cent) was lower than for the whole 16-74 years workday population (35 per cent increase). In contrast to City of London and Westminster, the workday population of Cambridge was female dominated, with a sex ratio of 97 males per 100 females. This compares with 107 males per 100 females for the usually resident population.
The second largest non-London increase was Crawley, West Sussex (figure 4). Here there seemed to be a marked difference in the male and female workday populations. While the sex ratio in the usually resident population aged 16-74 was 99 males per 100 females, in the workday population this increased to 109 males per 100 females.
The LA presenting the largest percentage decrease between usually resident and workday populations was Lewisham (figure 5). The age sex profile suggests that many young professionals live here and may commute into the City. While the resident population showed a distinct peak in the age range 25-34, the workday population was relatively evenly distributed across ages 16-49. For the age group 25-34 there was a 42 per cent decrease from the usually resident population to the workday population; the overall decrease was 28 per cent. Overall, in the usually resident population the sex ratio was 96 males per 100 females; this fell to 91 males per 100 females within the workday population. Wandsworth (figure 5) presented more extreme differences at the younger working ages, with the majority of the difference between the two populations seen in the age range 25-39: for the age group 25-34 there was a 47 per cent decrease between the usually resident and workday populations, compared to a 25 per cent decrease overall. The sex ratio was reduced from 94 males per 100 females in the usually resident population to 89 in the workday population.
Castle Point, Essex and Rochford, Essex (figure 6) had the largest percentage decreases between usually resident and workday populations outside London. They had generally older population structures, with those aged 25-34 accounting for only 13 per cent of the usually resident populations aged 16-74 in both LAs. Decreases were spread across the majority of ages up to 65.
Figure 7 shows population pyramids for Kensington and Chelsea and North Warwickshire. Kensington and Chelsea was ranked tenth in table 1 (28 per cent increase between usually resident and workday populations). This increase was seven percentage points higher than the 2001 increase. The population pyramid indicates that the differences between the usually resident and workday populations were predominantly young females. The increase in females aged 25-34 was 49 per cent, while the sex ratio dropped to 82 males per 100 females in the workday population from 97 in the usually resident population. This was the lowest workday sex ratio of all LAs in England and Wales. The growth in female workday population in this very affluent London borough may partly be due to domestic staff being predominantly female.
North Warwickshire (figure 7) was ranked 18th in table 1 (18 per cent increase between usually resident and workday populations). This was the only LA in the top twenty to show a change in direction, from a comparative fall of 3 per cent from usually resident to workday population in 2001. The population pyramids indicate that the increase in workday populations was predominantly male, aged 16-64. North Warwickshire had the largest increase in sex ratio, increasing to 133 males per 100 females in the workday population from 99 in the usually resident population. The growth in male workers is likely to be due to the presence of automotive manufacturing and mining in this area (at the time of the 2011 Census), both of which are heavily male dominated industries.
Figure 8 shows population pyramids for two Welsh LAs, Cardiff and Flintshire. Cardiff had both the highest workday population density within Wales, and also the greatest gain in workday population compared to usually resident population. Cardiff showed clear gain in workday population for both sexes and most working ages. Consequently the sex ratio changed little from 98 males per 100 females in the usually resident population to 97 males per 100 females in the workday population.
Flintshire showed a more complex pattern, with the sex ratio changing from 99 males per 100 females in the usually resident population to 117 males per 100 females in the workday population. This was the greatest change in sex ratio between usually resident and workday populations seen in Wales, reflecting the male dominated aerospace, automotive and steel industries locally. By contrast, Flintshire had a corresponding reduction in female workday population relative to its usually resident population.
Interactive population pyramids are available for all LAs in England and Wales showing the differences between the workday and usually resident populations. These interactive pyramids cover all ages and provide comparisons of both population size and structure.
Please note: The population pyramids were withdrawn temporarily to address a coding issue on 7/11/2013. It will be available again as soon as possible.
Univariate 2011 Census data are available via the Neighbourhood Statistics website. Relevant table numbers are provided in all download files within this publication. Multivariate data are available via the Nomis website.
Further information on future releases is available online in the 2011 Census Prospectus.
ONS has ensured that the data collected meet users' needs via an extensive 2011 Census outputs consultation process in order to ensure that the 2011 Census outputs will be of increased use in the planning of housing, education, health and transport services in future years.
ONS is responsible for carrying out the census in England and Wales. Simultaneous but separate censuses took place in Scotland and Northern Ireland. These were run by the National Records of Scotland (NRS) and the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA) respectively.
A person's place of usual residence is in most cases the address at which they stay the majority of the time. For many people this will be their permanent or family home. If a member of the services did not have a permanent or family address at which they are usually resident, they were recorded as usually resident at their base address.
All key terms used in this publication are explained in the 2011 Census glossary. Information on the 2011 Census geography products for England and Wales is also available.
All census population estimates were extensively quality assured, using other national and local sources of information for comparison and review by a series of quality assurance panels. An extensive range of quality assurance, evaluation and methodology papers were published alongside the first release in July 2012 and have been updated in this release, including a Quality and Methodology (QMI) document.
The census developed the coverage assessment and adjustment methodology to address the problem of undercounting. It was used for both usual residents and short-term residents. The coverage assessment and adjustment methodology involved the use of standard statistical techniques, similar to those used by many other countries, for measuring the level of undercount in the census and providing an assessment of characteristics of individuals and households. ONS adjusted the 2011 Census counts to include estimates of people and households not counted.
The 2011 Census achieved its overall target response rate of 94 per cent of the usually resident population of England and Wales, and over 80 per cent in all local and unitary authorities. The population estimate for England and Wales of 56.1 million is estimated with 95 per cent confidence to be accurate to within +/- 85,000 (0.15 per cent).
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