Transcript – Economic and Social characteristics of the Resident Population of England and Wales by nationality and country of birth in 2011
This is a short video on international migrants using data obtained from the 2011 Census of England and Wales.
First we will look at country of birth and nationality. In 2011, 87 per cent of the resident population of England and Wales were born in the UK; 13 per cent of usual residents were born outside the UK.
When looking at nationality the numbers are different as some of those born abroad have since become British citizens. British nationals accounted for 76 per cent of the resident population, foreign nationals for 7 per cent while 17 per cent did not hold a passport. However 97 per cent of those not holding a passport were born in the UK and most were therefore likely to be UK nationals.
The economic and social characteristics of migrant groups will be affected by demographic characteristics such as age and length of residence. Non-UK passport holders were on average much younger with a median age of 31.3 years, compared with UK passports holders with a median age of 40.6 years.
Now we will look at economic activity. The majority of both UK and foreign nationals aged 16 and over were in employment, both around 60 per cent. There was a lower proportion of foreign nationals who were retired compared to UK nationals. This is linked to the age structure of each population where foreign nationals had a lower median age.
The proportion of foreign nationals who were students was almost double that of UK nationals.
Next we look at the highest qualifications gained for those aged 16 and over. Almost half of UK nationals were qualified at levels 1-3, which is up to and including A level or equivalent. For foreign nationals the most common qualifications were at level 4+, that is degree level or above.
Next we will compare the top ten foreign nationalities with those of UK nationals, and as we can see over half of Americans, Nigerians and Indians were qualified to degree level, whereas Polish and Portuguese nationals each had less than a quarter qualified at degree level, and a higher proportion with ‘other’ qualifications. By contrast, 30 per cent of UK nationals had highest qualifications at degree level or above.
Next we look at levels of English proficiency. The proportion of foreign nationals who spoke English well, very well or as their main language was 88 per cent, 10 per cent could not speak English well and 1.7 per cent of foreign nationals spoke no English at all.
Now we will focus on housing tenure, and using this graph we can see that, 73% of UK nationals lived in an owner occupied property, compared to 33% of foreign nationals. Foreign nationals were much more likely to live in private rented accommodation.
Looking at year of arrival, the proportion of foreign nationals living in an owner occupied property has declined the more recently they arrived; this fell from 75 per cent of those who arrived before 1981 to 16 per cent of those who arrived between 2010 and 2011.
Finally we look at reported levels of good health; this is those who described their health as good or very good. Foreign nationals reported the highest levels of good health in 2011 at 90 per cent, compared with 84 per cent for UK nationals.
Now using this chart we will look at the health of UK and foreign nationals across age groups. At the youngest age groups for both foreign and UK nationals almost all reported having good levels of health. In the age group 35 to 54 a higher proportion of foreign nationals reporter good health than did UK nationals. The proportion reporting good health decreases in older age groups with UK nationals reporting higher levels at age 55 and above.