The Life Opportunities Survey (LOS) explores disability in terms of the barriers to participation that people experience.
The findings presented are based on longitudinal data collected from the first two waves of the survey.
Respondents to the LOS were interviewed for the first time in wave one (between June 2009 and March 2010) and then followed up in wave two (June 2010 to March 2012), approximately one year after their initial interview.
- Confidence interval
- Control Group
- Easy Read
- Great Britain
- Impairment at both waves group
- Impairment status
- Impairment groups
- Longitudinal survey
- Longitudinal survey
- Loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) cases
- Offset group
- Onset-acquired group
- Onset-screening group
- Participation restriction
- Proxy interview
- Reference group
- Region / Government Office Region (GOR)
- Response rate
- Sampling error
- Standard error
- Statistical significance
Adults are defined as persons aged 16 or over. LOS interviews all people aged 16 and over in sampled private households.
A LOS respondent’s age was their age on the date of their Wave One interview and is provided in one of the following ways:
From the respondent’s date of birth
If date of birth is not given, respondents are asked their age
If age is not given the interviewer will estimate the respondent’s age
For consistency within this Report age at Wave One has been used in all analyses.
Social, economic or physical barriers that stop people taking part in activities as much as they would like to. People with impairment may face a range of barriers, for example:
attitudinal, for example discriminatory or prejudicial attitudes and practices among employers, health professionals and service providers
policy, resulting from policy design and delivery which do not take disabled people into account
physical, for example through the design of the built environment, transport systems, or as a result of the provision of inaccessible information about services
Respondents to the LOS were asked to select all barriers that applied to them from the list of options provided (link)
Examples of barriers include: discrimination, the attitudes of other people, inaccessible buildings, public transport and information, limited income, not having anyone to meet or speak to, as well as lack of support, equipment and adjustments.
A household is defined as a single person or a group of people (not necessarily related) living at the same address who share cooking facilities and share a living room or sitting room or dining area.
A person is generally regarded as living at the address if he or she (or the respondent providing the proxy information) considers the address to be his or her main residence. There are, however, certain rules which take priority over this criterion.
Children aged 16 or over who live away from home for purposes of either work or study and come home only for holidays are not included at the parental address under any circumstances.
Children of any age away from home in a temporary job and children under 16 at boarding school are always included in the parental household.
Anyone who has been away from the address continuously for six months or longer is excluded.
Anyone who has been living at the address for six months or longer is included even if he or she has his or her main residence elsewhere.
Addresses used only as second homes are never counted as a main residence.
The LOS Wave Two Report Part I focuses on three subgroups of adults who reported at least one impairment at Wave One, Wave Two, or at both Waves of the LOS. These three impairment groups were analysed:
Onset-acquired - adults who did not report any impairment at Wave One but reported at least one impairment at Wave Two
Offset - adults who reported at least one impairment at Wave One but did not report any impairment at Wave Two
Impairment at both waves - adults who reported at least one impairment at both Waves One and Two
The adults who did not report any impairment at both waves will be analysed in the LOS Wave Two Report Part II.
All households were contacted via telephone as part of a keep-in-touch-exercise (KITE) prior to face-to-face interviews at Wave Two. During the KITE, contact and household details were updated for the face-to-face interview.
The KITE interview for households that contained only adults in the onset-screening group included a screening questionnaire to establish if any adult in the household had acquired an impairment. Only those households containing at least one adult identified as acquiring an impairment were then interviewed face-to-face.
Longitudinal weights are used for the longitudinal population - those respondents who are present at both Wave One and Two of the LOS. These weights are representative of the population at the time of Wave One.
These weights incorporate adjustments for non-response and differential sampling probabilities of selection at Wave One (LINK) The weights also adjust for loss to follow-up (LTFU) at Wave Two.
Analyses carried out for the LOS Wave Two Report Part I focuses on changes, reported by respondents, from Wave One to Wave Two and therefore only utilises longitudinal weights.
All of the remaining adults, interviewed at Wave One, who did not have an impairment at Wave One and who were not selected for the control group were assigned to the ‘onset screening group’. These adults were not interviewed in person at Wave Two, unless they or an adult member of their household had acquired an impairment between Wave One and Wave Two. A brief telephone interview (KITE) was conducted with the onset-screening group between Wave One and Wave Two in order to establish if anyone in their household had acquired an impairment.
In LOS, an adult has a participation restriction if they experience at least one barrier to taking part in at least one of the following life areas:
education and training
economic life and living standards, for example being able to afford expenses or make loan repayments
leisure, social and cultural activities
accessibility of housing
accessibility outside the home
Examples of barriers include: discrimination, the attitudes of other people, inaccessible buildings, public transport and information, limited income, not having anyone to meet or speak to, as well as lack of support, equipment and adjustments
The regional level geography used in the analyses of this report is based on Government Office Regions (GORs).The nine GORs are the primary statistical subdivisions of England and were also the areas in which the former Government Offices for the Regions fulfilled their role. Each GOR covers a number of local authorities. Government Office Regions were established in 1994. They replaced the Standard Statistical Regions as the primary classification for the presentation of English regional statistics. After the Comprehensive Spending Review in 2010, it was confirmed that the GORs would close on 31 March 2011. However, there is still a requirement to maintain a regional level geography for statistical purposes.
The nine GORs within England are: North East; North West; East Midlands; South West; Yorkshire and Humberside; East of England; West Midlands; South East and London. In addition to these, further breakdowns are also provided for Great Britain (GB): England, Wales and Scotland.
A response rate provides information about the number of cases that took part in the survey and reasons for non-participation. The response rate for LOS is provided at the household and individual level, more information is available in Annex 3.
See also Longitudinal Weighting.
In this report, all percentages and means presented in the tables are based on data weighted to compensate for differential non-response. The unweighted base number is included in the tables and represent the number of people/households interviewed in the specified group. A full description of the method of weighting used in this report can be found in Annex 2.