This Social Indicators summary has been produced as part of the Compendium of UK Statistics and this page presents some more detailed analysis for some of the main statistics within this theme. The statistics provided are the latest comparable figures as available on 5 June 2014. There will be no further updates before 18 September 2014.
The full data catalogue provides web links to the statistical releases and assessments of the comparability of the statistics. The figures presented here have been assessed as fully comparable.
- Wealth of the Average Household
- Children living in relative low income households
- Tax Credits
- Healthy Life Expectancy (HLE)
- Homicide Rates
- Educational Attainment – International Comparisons
The distribution of household wealth (including private pension wealth)(1) according to the location of the household is shown in Figure 1.
Across Wales, Scotland and the regions of England, in 2010/12 the North East of England and Scotland had the lowest median total household wealth, at £142,700 and £165,500 respectively. The greatest median total household wealth was in the South East of England, at £309,700, followed by the South West at £288,300 and the East of England at £259,900.
Median total household wealth in the South East of England was more than double that in the North East of England in 2010/12, the difference between the two medians being around £167,000.
Figure 1: Median total household wealth in Great Britain, by country and regions, 2010/12
Source: Office for National Statistics
Download data (126 Kb Excel sheet)
1. Median total household wealth is a net wealth measure created by adding together the different types of household wealth; property wealth (net), financial wealth (net), physical wealth and private pension wealth. It should be noted that it does not include business assets, accrued rights to state pensions or assets held in Trusts.
In 2009/10 to 2011/12, 18% of children in the UK were living in households with an income of less than 60 per cent of the contemporary(1) median household income, before housing costs(2). This compares to 24% in 1999/00 to 2001/02, a decrease of 6 percentage points.
Figure 2 shows that between 1999/00 to 2001/02 and 2009/10 to 2011/12, Scotland had the biggest decrease in the proportion of children living in households with relative low income at 10 percentage points. This compares with decreases of 6 percentage points in England, 5 percentage points in Wales and 4 percentage points in Northern Ireland.
Much of the reduction in the proportion of children living in households with relative low income since 1999/00 has been driven by increased entitlement to state support for low income households. For more information, refer to the report Households Below Average Income (HBAI).
Figure 2: The proportion of children living in households where income is less than 60 per cent of contemporary median household income, before housing costs, by UK countries, 1999/00 to 2001/02 and 2009/10–2011/12
Source: Department for Work and Pensions – Households Below Average Income, Table 4.16ts.
Download data (26.5 Kb Excel sheet)
1. Contemporary median income refers to the median income in the survey year being considered.
2. Figures for the proportion of children living according to this definition after housing costs have been deducted are also published. For more information, refer to the social indicators data catalogue. Housing costs include rent, water rates, mortgage interest payments, buildings insurance payments and ground rent and service charges.
Tax credits are payments made by the government to both families with dependent children whose household income is below a certain threshold (child tax credits) and to working families (with or without children) whose household income is below a certain threshold (working tax credits).
In 2012/13, 1 in 3 of all families in the UK receiving child tax credits were out-of-work. Figure 3 shows how this proportion varied when broken down by country and region of England. The four constituent countries of the UK all had similar proportions of out-of-work families receiving tax credits, ranging from 31% in Scotland to 33% in Northern Ireland. Of the regions of England, 41% of families receiving tax credits in London were out of work, compared to 26% of families in the South West.
Figure 3: Proportion of families receiving tax credits who were out-of-work, by country and regions, 2012/13
Download data (28 Kb Excel sheet)
Between the periods 2000-02 to 2008-10, HLE in the constituent countries of the UK increased; however the size of the increases varied between males and females across the countries. In Scotland, there were increases of 0.1 years for male HLE (from 59.7 to 59.8 years) and 1.9 years for female HLE (from 62.1 to 64.1 years) between 2000-02 and 2008-10. These are similar to the size of increases seen in HLE for males in Northern Ireland over the same period.
The largest increase in HLE between 2000-02 and 2008-10 was for males living in Wales, for whom HLE increased by 7.8 years, from 55.2 years in 2000-02 to 63.0 years in 2008-10. There were also considerable increases in HLE for both males and females in England, from 60.6 years and 62.5 years respectively in 2000-02 to 64.4 years and 66.4 years in 2008-10.
Figure 4: Healthy life expectancy for males and females in the UK countries, 2000-02, 2004-06 and 2008-10
Source: Office for National Statistics - Health Expectancies at Birth and Age 65 in the United Kingdom, 2008-10.
Download data (67.5 Kb Excel sheet)
There are variations in how Healthy Life Expectancy (HLE) compares to overall life expectancy across the constituent countries of the UK. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn baby would be expected to live if he or she experienced the age-specific mortality rates, of the given area and time period, for the rest of their life. HLE is the average number of additional years a person would live in a given health state, if he or she experienced the specified population’s particular age-specific mortality and health status for that time period throughout the rest of his or her life. Figure 4.1 compares life expectancy and HLE estimates for the period 2008-10.
Figure 4.1: Healthy life expectancy and life expectancy for males and females in the UK countries, 2008-10
Source: Office for National Statistics
Download data (66.5 Kb Excel sheet)
Figure 4.1 shows that in 2008-10, females in England had the highest life expectancy and HLE of both sexes across the four countries, with a HLE of 66.4 years and a life expectancy of 82.3 years. Females in Scotland had the lowest life expectancy (80.3 years) for females across the four countries, but the second highest HLE (64.1 years). The largest difference between female life expectancy and female HLE was 19.5 years in Northern Ireland, which had the lowest HLE estimate for females at 61.9 years.
Males in Northern Ireland also had the largest difference between life expectancy (77.0 years) and HLE (59.2 years) in 2008-10, at 17.8 years and again had the lowest HLE of the four countries. Scotland had the lowest life expectancy for males across the four nations at 75.8 years. England had the highest life expectancy (78.3 years) and HLE (64.4 years) for males of the four countries, as well as the smallest difference between these two figures for either males or females across the four countries in 2008-10, at 14.0 years.
Figures may not sum due to rounding.
Prior to 2010, HLE estimates for Northern Ireland were derived from the Continuous Household Survey (CHS). From 2010 onwards, estimates have been derived from the Health Survey Northern Ireland (HSNI). This has resulted in a slight decline in the prevalence of ‘very good’ and ‘good’ general health and a slight increase in the prevalence of limiting persistent illness or disability compared to what might have been expected from the CHS. This may have impacted the estimates of HLE for Northern Ireland in 2008-10.
Figures for 2008-10 are based upon a 5-point general health question. Figures for 2000-02 are simulated based on imputing responses to the 5-point general health question from survey data using modelling techniques, in order to be comparable to the 2008-10 estimates.
This section of the compendium also includes crime statistics. The majority of crime statistics are not comparable across the four nations of the UK. However, homicides are well recorded due to the serious nature of the crime and rates are considered to be broadly comparable across the UK and Europe (despite some differences in definitions). Eurostat have recently collated European homicide statistics (Figure 5).
Averaged over the years 2008 to 2010, the rate per 100,000 population for England and Wales was 1.17, below that for Scotland (1.74) and Northern Ireland (1.42).
Although the rate of murder and non-negligent manslaughter in the USA has fallen substantially in recent years, it is still well above those experienced in Western Europe, at 4.8 per 100,000 population (as reported in the Federal Bureau of Investigation ‘Crime in the United States, 2012’.
Figure 5: Homicide rate per 100,000 population for European Union(1) countries (ranked in order high to low), averaged data for 2008 to 2010.
Download data (28.5 Kb Excel sheet)
1. The rate per 100,000 population is calculated using figures for completed homicide only. The rate for Latvia was not calculated as figures include attempted homicide.
Police recorded crime figures for England and Wales have been assessed against the Code of Practice for Official Statistics and found not to meet the required standard for designation as national Statistics. However, of all data based on police recorded crime, Home Office and ONS statisticians do not have significant concerns about the accuracy of recording of homicides.
Caution should be taken in comparing homicide rates across countries as there are some differences in definitions (although these vary less than for some other types of crimes) and some differing points in the criminal justice system at when homicides are recorded.
Eurostat collate data from countries across Europe on the percentage of the population(1) aged 25 to 64 with tertiary education attainment(2), for example undergraduate or postgraduate university qualifications(3). It should be noted that many factors can affect what proportion of the population aged 25 to 64 have tertiary education attainment in any given country, for example migration, the labour market and the Higher Education (HE) sector. Therefore, the percentage of the population with tertiary education attainment is one of several factors to consider when comparing education outcomes between countries.
Figure 6: Population aged 25 to 64 with tertiary education attainment, 2013
Download data (27.5 Kb Excel sheet)
1. Eurostat do not publish separate figures for England. Data are available for NUTS 1 and NUTS 2 geographies.
Figure 6 shows that in 2013, Scotland had the highest percentage of the population with tertiary education attainment of all the European countries listed, at 44.0%. This is 4.4 percentage points higher than the UK figure of 39.6% and 2.5 percentage points higher than the figure for the Republic of Ireland, at 41.5%. In Wales, 36.1% of the population aged 25-64 had tertiary qualifications, a similar proportion to Sweden (37.0%) and Belgium (35.5%). Northern Ireland had the lowest percentage of the four UK nations, where 32.5% of the population had tertiary education attainment, 7.1 percentage points lower than the UK figure. The proportion of Northern Ireland residents with tertiary education attainment is similar to that in France (32.1%). The countries with the lowest proportions of the population with tertiary education attainment were Romania (15.7%), Italy (16.3%) and Malta (18.4%).
One specific factor in why certain countries have a higher percentage of the population with tertiary education attainment than others is where potential undergraduates from each nation choose to study at HE level. Figure 6.1 provides HESA data showing what proportion of first-degree undergraduates domiciled(4) in each of the four nations of the UK are studying in the same nation as which they are domiciled. In other words, the percentage of undergraduates who lived in Wales prior to starting their course, who are also studying at a Higher Education Institution (HEI) in Wales(5).
Figure 6.1: Percentage of full-time undergraduates undertaking their first degrees at institutions in the same nation or region as which they lived prior to starting their course, 2012/13
Download data (27.5 Kb Excel sheet)
Figure 6.1 shows that 95.1% of undergraduates who lived in Scotland prior to starting their course were also undertaking their first degrees at HEIs in Scotland in 2012/13. The equivalent figures for those living and studying in Northern Ireland and Wales were 67.9% and 62.5% respectively. This suggests that more potential undergraduates stay in Scotland to study than who stay in Wales or Northern Ireland. London had the lowest proportion of undergraduates both domiciled and studying in London, at 50.7%.
1. Data refer to the population of individuals living in private households.
2. ‘Tertiary education attainment’ covers levels 5 and 6 of the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 (ISCED), produced by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO). For more information, refer to the Eurostat website.
3. Official UK qualification levels are those published by OECD in Education at a Glance. Here, Eurostat data are used as they allow UK breakdowns.
4. ‘Domicile’ refers to a student’s place of permanent residence prior to starting a course. The data are supplied to HESA in the form of postcodes for UK, Guernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Man domiciled students.
5. Undergraduates who are not studying at an institution which reports to HESA (for example, those studying at overseas universities) will not be included in these figures.