Pan Strategic Health Authorities (Pan SHAs)
Pan Strategic Health Authorities (Pan SHAs) - Pan SHAs are based on the NHS's National Programme for IT. There are three Programmes for IT in England, each made up of an individual SHA (in the case of London) or groups of whole SHAs. Pan SHAs are not legal entities. They are confederations of SHAs and any staff working as part of the Pan SHAs will be employees of the SHAs. Pan SHAs replaced IT Clusters as a health geography in April 2007
Parishes are subdivisions of local authorities in many parts of England, and their councils are the most local level of government. Unlike electoral wards/divisions however, parishes are not found in all parts of England. The Welsh and Scottish equivalents are communities. Note that the full term for administrative parishes is 'civil parishes', to distinguish them from the ecclesiastical parishes which are found in all parts of the UK.
Further Information about Parishes
If individuals or organisations prefer that their mail is not delivered to an identifiable postal address, they may opt to set up a PO Box. PO Box addresses do not have a specific geographic location; instead the mail is sent to a local delivery office, from where it can be forwarded to the real address or collected by the addressee.
In terms of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), a point is a feature that can be defined by a single (x,y) co-ordinate pair.
Point in Polygon
Point in polygon is an overlay operation used in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). It is used to determine whether a given point lies inside a given polygon (area). For example, it might be used to establish whether a particular address (identified by a grid reference) falls within a particular electoral ward.
Police Force Area
There are 43 police force areas in England and Wales, each covering one or more complete local authorities. Scotland has 8 police force areas, each covering one or more council areas. Northern Ireland is covered by one police force.
Further Information about Police Force Areas
In terms of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), a polygon is a feature defined by a series of sequential co-ordinates that join up to make a closed shape. Examples of polygons include buildings, tracts of water and any geographic units (electoral wards, districts, health authorities etc).
Polygon in Polygon
Polygon in polygon is an overlay operation used in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). It is used to determine whether a given polygon lies inside (or overlaps) another polygon. For example, it might be used to establish which Census Output Areas fall within a particular electoral ward.
Postcodes are assigned by Royal Mail to identify postal delivery areas across the UK. They are also a key means of providing locational references for statistical data.
Further information on postcodes. This includes information on postcode structure, large and small user postcodes and the use of postcodes for referencing data.
Non-geographic postcodes can either be special postcodes assigned to some large users of the postal service, or PO boxes that lie within a (pseudo) postcode district that does not form a discrete part of a postcode area.
Terminated postcodes are postcodes which are no longer used for mail delivery. The most frequent reasons for this are postcode reorganisations or the demolition/redevelopment of buildings. Terminated postcodes are occasionally re-used by Royal Mail but not before an elapsed period of 2 years. Terminated postcodes are retained on ONS Geography's postcode directories until or unless they are re-used.
Postcode Address File (PAF)The Postcode Address File (PAF) is a database of all UK addresses and postcodes. It is produced by Royal Mail and is continuously updated.
Further Information about the PAF
Primary Care Group (PCG)Primary Care Groups (PCGs) were a local unit of health administration in England between 1999 and 2002, although by the end of this period many of them had converted to Primary Care Trusts (PCTs). Until the reorganisation of English health geography on 1 April 2002, PCGs/PCTs reported to Health Authorities (HAs). Unfortunately they were defined in different ways in different parts of the country, thus providing a very inconsistent geography.
Further Information about English Health Geographys
Primary Care Organisation (PCO)Primary Care Organisations (PCOs) is a generic term including English Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) and Care Trusts (CTs) based on the PCT model, and Welsh Local Health Boards (LHBs). It previously incorporated the former English Primary Care Groups (PCGs) and Welsh Local Health Groups (LHGs).
For Further Information about English Health Geographies
Primary Care Trust (PCT)
Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) are a local unit of health administration in England and since the reorganisation of English health geography on 1 April 2002 have reported to the Strategic Health Authorities (SHAs). Further restructuring of health administration in 2006 reduced the number of PCTs significantly. The majority of PCTs are now defined in terms of local authority districts, but there are exceptions. Although most of England falls within a PCT, some areas have Care Trusts (CTs) instead. PCTs did exist before 1 April 2002 and, together with Primary Care Groups (PCGs), reported to Health Authorities (HAs). Their remit was however much more limited than that of the current PCTs.
Further Information about English Health Geographies
Prison Service AreaPrison service areas cover England and Wales. There are 10 in England and 1 in Wales. The English prison service areas correspond with the Regions (Former GORS), with the exception of the South East Region which has been split into 2 prison service areas.
Further Information about the Prision Service Areas
Proportional Symbol Map
Proportional symbol maps display data by using symbols that vary in size in proportion to the data values.